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President of Garrett Biblical Institute 



Copyright, 1915, by 






Foreword 9 

President Charles M. Stuart, Garrett Biblical Institute. 

Introduction 13 

Paul Little. 

The Most Dangerous Class in America (Rom. 9. 3). 18 
Bishop Richard Joseph Cooke, Resident Bishop, 
Portland, Oregon. 


I. Oregon 

1. Fisherman or Shepherd (John 21. 17) 44 

President Carl G. Doney, Salem, Oregon. 

2. The Mutual Obligations op Church and State 

in Building Human Character (Matt. 27. 4) . 58 
Frank La Fayette Loveland, First Church, Port- 
land, Oregon. 

3. The Gospel for an Age of Doubt (John 1. 46). . 76 

Herbert Swann Wilkinson, First Church, Eugene, 

4. The Christian Doctrine of Sin (1 John 3. 4; 5. 17). 88 

Clarence True Wilson, General Secretary, Method- 
ist Temperance Society, Topeka, Kansas. 

II. Puget Sound 

1. Like unto His Brethren (Heb. 2. 17) 102 

A. W. Leonard, First Church, Seattle, Washington. 

2. Christian Certitude (1 John 2. 3) 114 

Joseph P. Marlatt, First Church, Everett, Wash- 

3. Perfected Culture (John 12. 21) 128 

President Edward H. Todd, Tacoma, Washington. 

III. Columbia River 

1. The Faith which Satisfies (John 6. 35) 138 

Robert Brumblay, Superintendent, Wenatchee Dis- 
trict, Spokane, Washington. 



2. The Unseen Forces of God (2 Kings 6. 17) 154 

Harold O. Perry, Superintendent The Dalles Dis- 
trict, Kennewick, Washington. 

3. Brother Enoch (Gen. 5. 24) 166 

Francis Burgette Short, First Church, Spokane, 

4. The Program of Life (Eccles. 3. 1 ; James 4. 13-15) 180 

Gabriel Sykes, Waterville, Washington. 

IV. Idaho 

1. Behold the Man! (John 19. 5) 192 

James David Gillilan, Superintendent Boise Dis- 
trict, Boise, Idaho. 

2. The Gift-Bringer (Isa. 9. 6) 202 

Wilsie Manning Martin, First Church, Boise, Idaho. 

V. Montana 

1. The Sin of Stupidity (Acts 7. 25) 220 

President Charles Lincoln Bovard, Helena, Mon- 

2. The Sin of the Strong (Gen. 49. 14, 15; 2 Thess. 

3. 13) 232 

Edward Smith, Superintendent Butte District, 
Helena, Montana. 

VI. North Montana 

Christian Stewardship (1 Sam. 2. 30) 242 

John A. Martin, Superintendent Great Falls Dis- 
trict, Great Falls, Montana. 


The Problems of the Pacific Northwest: How 

Best Shall We Solve Them? 255 



The discerning editor of this work interprets 
his commission with an altogether satisfactory 
comprehensiveness. In his own introduction he 
sets forth with eloquence the wonders of the 
Pacific Northwest; then in the symposium with 
which the work concludes he discloses the prob- 
lems involved in the proper development of the 
Empire whose wonders he celebrates and whose 
prosperity is his chief joy. Midway he places 
prophetic messages illustrative at once of the 
temper of the people, their need and their hope, 
the whole constituting a commentary on the land 
and its inhabitants not only informing but inti- 

It is a commonplace of historical criticism that 
the real life of a people is to be studied best in 
the poetry or the preaching of the period. Always 
the true poet and the prophet has deeper and 
truer things to say of an epoch than the chronicler 
or reporter. The sermons of John Chrysostom 
tell us more of social life at Constantinople dur- 
ing the fourth century than do the records of the 
state ; and if one would see the very heart of Italy 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries it is not 
to official activities one would go but to the 



poetry of Dante and the preaching of Savonarola. 
The subtle and complex spirit of the nineteenth 
century has been reflected with greater fulness 
and with keener discrimination in the poetry of 
Tennyson and Browning, in the preaching of 
Maurice and Newman than in the records and 
memoirs of contemporary historians. 

It is a true instinct, therefore, that leads the 
editor to give the pulpit of his Pacific Northwest 
a central place in the record. 

The true prophet is first of all a seer; it is his 
to penetrate beneath the surface of things and 
read the inner life of a people. Only thus could 
he minister to his age. The things that lie on the 
surface are not the main concern of life, though 
from the attention they receive and the notice 
they compel one might be tempted to think other- 
wise. Sometimes it would seem as if such things 
were not even symptoms. People seem to have a 
passion for show and pleasure and dissipation and 
the acquisition of great wealth ; while all the time 
the real hunger of the heart is for purity, power, 
and peace, if only some one were able to interpret 
them to themselves. Our own age is often de- 
scribed as irreligious. Nothing could be more 
misleading. The immense number of religions 
and quasi-religious cults is indicative not of an 
irreligious, but of a religious age, bewildered and 
vagrant if you will, but seriously and positively 

The sermons in the present volume witness to 


this temper on the part of the people of this new 
and growing Empire. One finds reflected in them 
the restlessness, the capriciousness, the wanton- 
ness of a vital and vigorous and even self-willed 
people; and finds also that beneath the disquiet- 
ing surface is a soundness of heart, a capacity 
for sober afterthought, a loyalty to the things 
that are true, worthy, and of good report, an 
exuberant unselfishness, a genuine if unconven- 
tional spirit of reverence, a pronounced and en- 
viable spirit of brotherly kindness, a readiness of 
response to spiritual appeal, and a sensitiveness 
to ethical demands — ample proof, if proof were 
needed, of a manhood and womanhood healthy, 
robust, and vigorous, the material out of which 
alone a great and noble State can come. 

Moreover the sermons are in evidence as to the 
nature of this people's faith. Differing widely in 
the manner of presentation they are one in this: 
the informing spirit throughout is that of the 
New Testament evangel. There is neither doubt 
nor uncertainty, neither logical nor rhetorical 
quibbling; the note is clear and steady, convinc- 
ing, and compelling — the hope of the world is 
Christ, the living Christ, the exalted Christ, who 
having been lifted up draws all men unto himself. 
There is much plain speaking, as there ought to 
be; the sins of society are diagnosed with un- 
sparing frankness ; the way of the cross is neither 
obscured nor belittled; contrition, repentance, 
belief, obedience, the clean life, the life in the 


Spirit — these are the central and recurring 
themes stated with apostolic simplicity, candor, 
and brotherly kindness. 

The book reveals the life of our people in this 
region, while it is also a tribute to their worth. 
The editor has rendered lasting service to the 
whole church by putting in such accessible form 
a transcript of life at once so illuminating and 
so intimate. 

Charles M. Stuart. 

President Garrett Biblical Institute. 
Evanston, Illinois, April 10, 1915. 


A pew words will suffice to account for The 
Pacific Northwest Pulpit. For the past 
twelve years the writer has been a zealous 
student of the workings of Methodism — its legis- 
lative proceedings, its polity, its doctrine, and 
its growth. A careful study of scores of Annual 
Conference Journals and of many church publi- 
cations has convinced him that this great and 
grand Pacific Northwest is but very little heard 
from. The church in general has a rather vague 
conception of her real problems and the men who 
are heroically working them out. We venture to 
say that even the church boards have but a meager 
idea of the needs in this vast territory. And 
why? Are they not appropriating tens of thou- 
sands of dollars annually ? Do they not visit each 
Annual Conference and thus get in touch with 
our problems ? Does not the Board of Home Mis- 
sions and Church Extension receive the sanction 
of the local Conference boards ere it sends any 
money for any church? Does not the Board of 
Sunday Schools receive frequent reports from the 
Conference Sunday school superintendents as to 
their work? We say, "Yes" to all these. But O, 



how little all these convey of our real tasks and 
problems ! 

In the territory covered by this book we have 
four States — Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and 
Montana. These States contain 396,711 square 
miles, which is larger by 4,156 square miles than 
the sixteen Eastern States reaching from Maine 
to Florida. 

According to the census of 1910, the population 
in this region was only 2,516,402, whereas in the 
Eastern group they had 35,121,478, or 32,605,076 
more people than we had. Now a word relative 
to the religious census. According to our Con- 
ference Journals of 1914, in this immense section 
we had only 6 Conferences (Oregon, Puget Sound, 
Columbia River, Idaho, Montana, and North 
Montana), 22 districts, 836 churches (an average 
of 38 to a district), 3,617 probationers, 7,545 non- 
resident and 81,081 resident members, or a total 
of 92,243 members. Will you be surprised when 
you are told that there is one Conference in Meth- 
odism which has more churches and church mem- 
bers than this vast empire which is larger than 
sixteen Eastern States combined? 

The North-East Ohio Conference has 862 
churches, 10 districts (average of 86 to the dis- 
trict), 2,968 probationers, 6,895 nonresident, and 
145,889 resident members, or a total of 155,742. 
Thus you see it has 27 more churches and 63,499 
more members. What meaneth all this? Simply 
this, that if Methodism is to be a dominant factor 


in the life and activity of this great empire within 
the next twenty-five years, she must begin to build 
wisely now by having proper supervision in every 
department of church work. We now have only 
three struggling colleges and three hospitals, but 
who knows how many schools and hospitals we 
shall have in the next quarter of a century if 
Methodism is awake to her opportunities ! 

We now have just about two and a half million 
inhabitants in this section, but who knows when 
the European war ceases and the teeming millions 
shall migrate to the land of peace and plenty and 
seek homesteads in the rich hills and valleys of 
this Pacific Northwest but that we shall have 
twenty million population in the next thirty 
years ! Thus the solution of our varied problems 
thirty years hence will depend largely upon the 
solution of our problems now. And as our task 
is vast and comprehensive, we need in our ranks 
broad-minded ministers and laymen; men with 
large views and broad sympathies; Methodism 
needs men whose minds half an idea cannot 
satisfy, in whose souls half a world would leave a 
vacuum; whose philanthropy reaches more than 
one caste or color; who will find in every person 
a child of the same Great Father. This being pre- 
eminently a practical age, what we need to-day 
is not so much those good men who mourn over 
our State or national degeneracy and fast over 
our national sins, as those better men who will 
rise up from their fasts and prayers and go forth 


and work for the reformation of our morals and 
the securing through practical righteousness of 
our national well-being. 

As this immense Pacific Northwest is now only 
in the making and building, it requires men of 
true and tried courage, men who dare to do right 
and stand by the right; men who neither fear to 
explode an old dogma though adored for centuries 
if it be erroneous, nor to stand by an old custom 
against a world, if it be honorable and truthful. 
Men who are not afraid to tear the religious 
visor from the face of a false reform, nor to turn 
their backs on the old Sphinx of conservatism in 
the direction of a true progress ; men who, under- 
standing what is best for man's welfare and 
God's glory, will do their duty earnestly, boldly, 
and manfully, leaving God Almighty to take care 
of their reputations. 

True, Methodism has had a glorious past, but 
we are not to be satisfied with what the ages have 
done, we are to make our age do also. It is not 
enough that we read famous histories, we must 
make our histories famous. We must seize the 
bright torch which is offered us by the generation 
passing and bear it forward newly kindled for 
the benefit and blessing of the future. 

Now, the men who have contributed articles for 
this volume, are the manly, practical, progressive, 
aggressive, and heroic type herein described — 
men who are building the foundation of what the 
future Methodism shall be. But, thank God, they 


are not the only heroic men who are the spiritual 
builders of this wonderful Pacific Northwest em- 
pire. There are many others unnamed and un- 
heralded, who are equally strong and heroic. 

If the reading of this volume shall create in its 
readers a greater interest in this Pacific North- 
west, the editor will feel more than repaid for 
having undertaken this responsible task of com- 


Resident Bishop, Portland, Oregon 

Bishop Richard Joseph Cooke was born in New 
York, June 31, 1853, graduated from East Ten- 
nessee University in 1880, and afterward studied 
in the University of Berlin. He has served the 
church in many important positions, namely, as 
a professor in and acting president of Grant Uni- 
versity, editor of the Methodist Advocate Jour- 
nal and Book Editor. In 1912 he was elected 
bishop, and his episcopal residence was fixed at 
Portland. Bishop Cooke has been a prolific 
writer, contributing much to the literature of the 
church. As a scholar he has always been a keen 
student, and as a preacher and orator he has few 
equals in the church. 




"For I could wish that I myself were anathema from 
Christ for my brethren's sake." — Rom. 9. 3 (R. V.). 

At a critical moment in the history of Israel 
Moses made a similar wish. The patriots are 
willing to die that their people may live. Paul 
is a patriot. The messenger of Christ to all na- 
tions, he still carries Israel in his heart; a 
traveler in many lands, he never forgets the home- 
land. The riches of grace in Christ Jesus sepa- 
rating him from his old life and lifting him above 
all earthly desires have not weaned him from his 
country nor quenched in him the sacred flame of 
patriotism. Nothing, neither exoneration by his 
countrymen at home nor persecution by them 
abroad can dampen his ardor for the land of his 
fathers. When the Council of Constance con- 
demned the martyr John Huss to the flames with 
the declaration, "We expel thee from the church 
militant," Huss cried out, "But not from the 
church triumphant!" So the apostle Paul, of 
the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a 
Hebrew of the Hebrews, will not be an outcast 



from Israel, "to whom pertaineth the adoption, 
and the glory, and the covenants, and the 
giving of the law, and the service of God, and the 
promises ; whose are the fathers, and of whom as 
concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, 
God blessed for ever." For 

Breathes there the man with soul so dead 
Who never to himself has said, 
This is my own, my native land! 

This impulse of patriotism seen in the test is no 
new experience in the life of Saint Paul. The 
record of his early life in the book of Acts shows 
that he was always intensely patriotic. But Paul, 
the apostle of Jesus, whom he persecuted, is not 
less patriotic than Saul, the fiery inquisitor of 
the Jewish faith. He is a better patriot. His 
vision is broader, his understanding clearer, and 
his judgment saner. He sees clear relations be- 
tween righteousness and national integrity, be- 
tween perpetuity of a people and their appre- 
hension of the eternal truths of God, than he ever 
did before. Hence his patriotism is more self- 
sacrificing, deeper, and more personal. "I could 
wish that I myself were separated from Christ, 
for my brethren's sake." 

Let us not forget when he is uttering this out- 
burst of feelings. He is writing at a time when 
all the results of sin in the history of his people 
are coming to a focus. Soon the thunders of 


heaven, long delayed, will roll out the requiem 
of a nation. The awful curses ever before them 
in the book of Deuteronomy are now broadening 
over them ready to fall. Jerusalem is drunk with 
iniquity. The rulers of the nation have crucified 
their own Messiah, the Son of God. As a world- 
traveler Paul knows that in every nation under 
heaven the Jew is hated, and there is no help 
coming. Conversant with the conditions of 
Palestine, he knows that the iron hand of Rome 
that has crushed the liberties of mankind is 
tightening its grip on the Jewish state. He knows 
that grinding taxation is eating out the heart of 
the peasantry; that religious fanaticism and po- 
litical hatred are inflaming the masses; that the 
high priests and rulers of the people are divided 
among themselves; war parties, peace parties, 
parties of despair, the shadow of coming doom is 
creeping over the land. That terrible cry, "His 
blood be upon us and our children," will soon be 
answered, and the horrors of Jerusalem besieged 
shall wring a cry of anguish even from the stony 
heart of Titus the Roman commander. Paul sees 
it all. He recalls the history of his race; their 
intended mission, the wonderful interpositions of 
God in their behalf; their periods of glory and 
power; their prophets and priests; the Taber- 
nacle, Sinai, the temple; he sees it all, sees it as 
Jesus saw it when he wept over the city, but he 
sees it all coming down at last in blood and fire 
and vapor of smoke and everlasting ruin; the 


Day of the Lord has come; there is none to de- 
liver! Swift as the winds come the "Vultures 
that smell decaying empires from afar." Paul 
sees it all, and in anguish of soul cries out, "I 
could wish myself accursed instead for Israel's 

It is from the standpoint of Christian patriot- 
ism that I would appeal to patriotic Americans, 
especially to the educated, the well-to-do classes, 
concerning their obligations as good citizens, 
whether Christians or not, to the Church of God 
in the United States. 

It is the commonest among the most common- 
place assertions that no other nation is more 
highly favored than our own. But common as 
it is, we cannot reflect too seriously upon that 
common but tremendous platitude. Here is a 
vast territory stretching from arctic circles to 
tropical seas, enjoying all seasons, all climates; 
diversified by hills and mountains and plains and 
lakes and rivers, and, poured round all, the illimit- 
able oceans which have become the highways for 
travel and commerce with all shores of Europe 
and Asia. The geographical situation of Pales- 
tine, lying in the path of commerce between the 
east and the west, the north and the south, was 
no accident. It was the physical base for spir- 
itual mission to all nations. Is the- United States 
an accident ? Situated in the midst of the oceans 
between two continents, and stored with all re- 
sources for the building of the mightiest empire 


history ever gazed upon, is this land a mere geo- 
logical upheaval and nothing more? And who can 
comprehend the astounding development of this 
country in agriculture, railroads, mines, towns, 
villages, cities, its growth in population, in wealth, 
in imports and exports? In ten years our popu- 
lation has increased twenty per cent. There are 
more than four billions of dollars in the savings 
banks. Nearly a billion and a half is the value 
of our manufactured exports, while the harvests 
of our fields amount in value to nearly ten million 

Now, endowed by heaven with such richness of 
climate and soil, one would think that a rational, 
intelligent people inhabiting such a country, 
and with histories of other nations for thousands 
of years behind them to guide, warn, and inspire 
them, would be .above all other people a God- 
honoring people. One would think that, because 
of their growth in imperial greatness, their only 
object of worship would be the great God, the 
Creator of all things; that his laws would be 
their laws, and his church which he has estab- 
lished in the earth for righteousness would be 
reverenced above all institutions. Such I think 
would be the conclusion of reason. 

But what are the facts ? Now, we are not radi- 
cally a bad people. We are not a nation utterly 
lawless, corrupt in morals, godless in thought and 
life. The initial impulse- of the colonial period 
is not yet wholly exhausted. The influence of the 


Spartan-like character of our people before the 
Civil War is not yet a spent force. 

"I Tremble for My Country" 

Nevertheless, no intelligent patriot can con- 
sider the signs of the times with complacency. 
It does not follow that, as the poet Browning 

God's in his heaven — [therefore] 
All's right with the world. 

God has always, been in his heaven, and it has not 
always been "right with the world." Thomas 
Jefferson once exclaimed, as he surveyed the in- 
stitution of slavery, "I tremble for my country 
when I remember that God is just." What would 
he exclaim now? Look back over the history of 
America, as Paul scanned the history of Israel. 
Think what it cost to realize on this continent 
the dream of the ages — "a government of the peo- 
ple, by the people, for the people"; to establish 
civil and religious liberty; to bring out of the 
abstract disquisitions of theorists and philoso- 
phers the principles of justice, equality and fra- 
ternity, and make them the foundation stones of 
our social and political life. Think of all this, 
and when the orator, the philosopher, and the 
poet have glorified our country, then let us look 
steadily at the appalling fact that God and the 
institutions of God are becoming practically 
divorced from the life and the ideals of the na- 


tion. In spite of all our supposed culture, our 
literature, our arts and sciences; in spite of all 
our colleges and universities, and the millions ex- 
pended for education in the public schools, we, 
the American people, lead the whole world in 
crime! Our annual cost of crime is about one 
billion three hundred and seventy-three million 
dollars. There are four and a half times as many 
murders as there were twenty years ago. It was 
said by high authority a short while since that 
ten thousand murders are committed in this 
civilized country of ours every year. Chicago is 
credited with one hundred and eighteen murders 
a year. Paris has only fifteen; London, four 
times the size of Chicago, has only twenty. One 
State had recently more murders than the whole 
of the British empire. We are a great people. 
We have more homicides every year than Italy, 
France, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Hungary, Hol- 
land, Germany, England, Ireland, Scotland, and 
Wales all put together. 

Is this not enough to give us pause? And if 
we consider the frightful ravages of the saloon, 
that ceaseless promoter of crime, that enemy of 
God and man, shall we not have ground for more 
than alarm? And, furthermore, if to this accus- 
ing catalogue of national iniquities we add di- 
vorce, shall we not, like Saint Paul, cry out for 
our country ? One of the most startling bulletins 
ever issued by the United States government 
showed that in a recent period of ten years there 


were one million divorces in the United States; 
that is, that one marriage in every twelve ends 
in the divorce court. 

But it is of no value to enumerate further our 
national sins. The important matter is, what 
does all this mean for the future of the American 
people? Shall we get better or worse? Does it 
mean the breakdown of popular government, the 
failure of law? Does it mean social chaos, the 
radical corruption of society, the supremacy of 
carnal vices which dried up the life blood of once 
morally healthy peoples? I would not go that 
far. But I do think that the terrible meaning of 
it all is a vanishing sense of the reality of God. 
The Eternal God, so real, so neighborly, to men of 
yesterday, is becoming an external x, an alge- 
braic sign, an unknowable abstraction, or an in- 
comprehensible mystery unrelated to human life, 
lost in infinity. Some time ago an English poet 
gave us in a learned Review "The Funeral of 
God." He is no longer the God of law, visiting 
the iniquity of the fathers upon their children 
unto the third and fourth generation of those that 
hate him, and showing mercy unto thousands of 
them that love him and keep his commandments. 
He is an absentee God — if there is any real, per- 
sonal God at all. 

This seems to be the real, but as yet unspoken, 
meaning of it all. 

And now as to the church. Everywhere there 
seems to be a breakdown of authority. We see 


it in the home, in the church, in the State. If 
you would hold your position, have no convic- 
tions, do nothing, settle nothing, be all things to 
all men. Creep, crawl, play Uriah Heep, but hold 
your "job." Seek popularity, though you line up 
in the betrayal of your duty with Judas Iscariot. 
John the Baptist lost his head for keeping his 
conscience. You need yours. The authority of 
God in the soul is set aside for public opinion, 
and public opinion becomes a manufactured 
article as necessity requires and money is forth- 
coming. Is not success often considered the cri- 
terion of conduct in modern life? Is it not so 
that what succeeds is right, that what fails is 
wrong? Where are the distinctions clear and 
gulf-wide in the public mind and sounding forth 
like the voice of God on Sinai, between virtue and 
vice, right and wrong? What error is there that 
some ministerial or lay reprobate "will not adorn 
it with a text hiding its grossness with fair orna- 

Men criticize and wonder at the feebleness of the 
church. They dwell with pathetic unction on its 
loss of prestige, its lack of authority and saving 
power. But, in all fairness, how in the face of 
such conditions can religion, though the mightiest 
force in human history, make conquering head- 
way? Why, religion itself has become among 
many a mere matter of opinion. We invent some 
religious conceit, pray over it, and then hand it 
out as the opinion of the Almighty. Was there 


ever yet a fraud in religion that God's name was 
not forged to it? Is it any wonder that indiffer- 
ence to the church has become in heart-breaking 
degree the base preeminence of more than one 
half of the American people? Visit the churches 
in cities and towns of over five thousand popula- 
tion and behold the lonesome void. Where are 
the people? Compare the inside with the outside. 
Look at the few worshipers there, and the num- 
bers elsewhere who, to their everlasting shame, 
never enter the door of a church ! 

Then behold the humiliating conditions on 
which many churches are permitted to exist. 
Think of the pitiable devices sometimes resorted 
to in order to dragoon a handful of hearers. What 
claptrap announcements! What futile efforts to 
rival opera or cheap vaudeville! What efforts to 
entertain, to turn the house of God, "mine house 
that shall be called a house of prayer," into a 
competitive picture show, a baseball club, or re- 
duce it to the level of a concert hall! Think of 
the societies that must be organized to eke out 
support for such shadows of reality, the increase 
of machinery as the power of God decreases, the 
ingenious arguments that must be manufactured 
to explain and defend such outlandish methods! 

The Decline and Fall op the Republic 

What, in the long run, will be the effect of all 
this on the American people? Do you think, 
fellow citizens, that Christian people alone will 


suffer, that the American people outside the 
churches will be in no wise affected ? Nay ! Nay ! 
Nationally "we are all members one of another." 
The result, certain as the law of gravity, will be 
and can only be moral degeneracy, social disinte- 
gration, national weakness. No nation ever ex- 
isted that was not based on religion. As religion 
died the nation died. No nation can ever endure 
that eliminates God from its corporate life. The 
sands of Egypt, the lonely mounds of Babylonia, 
the ruins of Baalbec and Palmyra, of Forum 
and Areopagus — yea, the voices of thousands of 
years, sound out like fire bells at midnight the 
warning that the nation that forgets God shall 
perish. The Jewish state of Paul's day was a 
long time ripening to its fall. Judgment comes 
as the twilight comes, as the slowly gathering 
night comes, hut it comes! 

Do we believe this? Will a traveler from the 
interior of Tibet ever sit on the shores of the 
Pacific and write the decline and fall of the 
American republic? Imagine a fashionable Ro- 
man in the splendid days of Augustus ever dream- 
ing that in days to come a barbarian from savage 
Britain would sit amid the ruins of the Capitol 
and sketch the departed glories of "the grandeur 
that was Rome" ! 

We laugh incredulously, as godless people have 
always laughed, at such preaching when we think 
of our self-sufficiency, our resources, our inven- 
tions, our science, our guns and battleships, our 


wealth, our crops and national credit; or we 
boast of our intellectual grade, our ethical and 
political reserve power resident in the people and 
independent of the church. But are we the only 
people that ever boasted of power? Are we blind 
to the fact that all power comes from God? 
While we put our trust in physical forces have 
we any real sense of our weakness? Let us not 
forget that the moral forces of the universe may 
in turn laugh at us! Let us not forget that as 
there is stored up physical force, inconceivable 
energy, in the material elements about us that 
can make them explode and melt with fervent 
heat, so there are stored up in human society it- 
self — in the people themselves — the dynamic 
agencies for their own destruction. Out of them- 
selves, out of their infidelity, out of their vices 
and falsehoods and chicaneries, out of their so- 
cial hungers and political needs — out of them- 
selves — can come social and political conflagra- 
tions that will make the world turn pale. There 
are passions latent but terrible in the people; 
passions as fierce as ever blazed in the days of the 
French Revolution, or in the Homestead riots and 
frenzied mobs in our own country; hatred of 
class, antagonism to law, envy of wealth, discon- 
tent with industrial conditions — forces which if 
once turned loose may sweep as with the blasting 
breath of a furnace our present social order and 
industrial system from the face of the earth and 
"leave not a rock behind." 


For, if there is no God, if the people are taught 
by word and example to ignore him, if there is 
no divine sanction for human laws, but all are the 
product of physical evolution ; if right and wrong 
are synonymous with success or failure, why 
should not might be right? Why should men 
obey laws that restrain them? For the sake of 
the greater happiness, as godless economists 
teach? But whose happiness, the many or the 
few? Why should not every man, by every primi- 
tive law of nature, burn, slay, plunder, and de- 
stroy with tooth and claw to obtain for himself 
the good things of this life? Who will restrain 
him and by what right? God? There is no God. 
Law ? Who made it ? Society ? What is society, 
and what is it for, and by what authority will it 
restrain? Must the toiler forever toil? the poor 
forever remain poor? the hungry be forever hun- 
gry? Must the few forever banquet on the high 
places of the earth, and clothe themselves in soft 
raiment, while the millions forever struggle even 
to live? Ah! If the petty troubles of to-day, if 
unionism, industrialism, strikes, Sherman acts, 
weary the nation, "What will ye do in the swell- 
ing of Jordan?" 

Who Is to Blame? 

But who will be responsible for such condi- 
tions? Who is responsible now for this moral 
apathy, this indifference to the church in the 
United States? Is it the church itself? No. 


Never was the church less blameless, never was 
the church more faithful to God and to man, than 
at this present time. Never did it more clearly 
see the needs of the world, and more gloriously 
abandon itself to the ministry of these needs. 

Is it the wage-earners who seldom go to church ? 
Is it the sullen, intractable crowd, strangers to 
all spiritualizing influence, but ever ready for so- 
cial upheaval? Is it the coarse illiterate, the 
utterly godless, who snarl at religion and de- 
cency? No. These are not the dangerous classes 
in America. Not just yet. Their brutal antago- 
nism is too crude to be most dangerous to existing 
institutions. The most dangerous enemy to the 
existing order is not the foe that is physical at 
all. The enemy that is visible, the antagonism 
that can be seen and provided against by physical 
force, may be overcome. But who can provide 
against the intangible? Who can provide against 
the terror of the night and the pestilence that 
walketh at noonday? No! The most dangerous 
class in America is that class of people who, hav- 
ing acquired wealth, great or small, turn their 
backs upon the Church of God, and, renouncing 
all obligations to God and his church, deliberately 
abandon themselves to carnal enjoyments of 
luxury and ease. What is it to them that the 
civilization they enjoy, the social order, the se- 
curity of life and property, of which they are the 
beneficiaries, the very atmosphere of their social 
and civil life, are all in their origin the product of 


Christian centuries? They are willing to bask 
in the light and warmth of the sun, but they ig- 
nore the sun ; to such there is practically no God, 
no church, no country. They have ho sense of 
obligation to either God, or church, or country, 
for the pleasures and benefits they enjoy. Their 
sole interest is selfish surrender to the refine- 
ments of social life or the glittering allurements 
of the passing show. 

But what a dangerous life such a life is to those 
who live it and to the social order of which they 
are members! Such people forget that even for 
them practical atheism is the most colossal 
blunder. Dethrone God and you enthrone 
anarchy. They forget that it is better to have 
God without luxury than to have luxury without 
God, for in due time they will have neither. And 
as for the state, they forget that while despotism 
supported by guns and bayonets, and even the 
rule of mobocracy, may exist for a while without 
God, political liberty and social order never did 
and never can. 

What Evil Example May Do 

But what makes this class of people so 
dangerous? Wherein is their power for evil? 
Their evil power is their evil example. Example 
is the mightiest power in the universe. There is 
no teaching so subtle, none so penetrating, so 
suggestive, so simple, so effective, as example. 
One example is better than a thousand precepts. 


Example teaches, enforces, illustrates, suggests, 
demonstrates, fires the imagination, quickens 
emulation, and overcomes all arguments and all 
fears by the sheer force of its irresistible appeal. 
It was the example of Christ that created new 
ideals and founded a new world for humanity. 
It was the example of saints and martyrs and 
heroes of the faith that established the church on 
the ruins of empire. And what shall we say of 
the heroes and heroines of our own country, the 
founders of our political freedom, the sublime ex- 
ample of the defenders and founders of liberty 
in all lands! Example is the mightiest force in 
the universe. 

It is the evil power, then, of the example of 
those who ignore the church that makes them so 
dangerous to our social order and political in- 
stitutions. They are the fashion-makers. They 
are among the exponents of American ideas, of 
respectability, of education and culture. They 
create intellectual climates, social climates, anti- 
Christian atmospheres. They create opinion. 
They set the pace and suggest the mental atti- 
tude of the imitative masses who look up to them 
and try to imitate them. They present a false 
but practical illustration of how men may ignore 
God and still prosper. They ignore the church, 
and by example teach others to do likewise. 

They forget that God is the strength of the 
American republic, that in ignoring him and his 
church, the pillar of the nation, they betray their 


country. They never think of consequences. But 
their example is their treason. 

In the continental United States there are 
ninety-one million people. In all denominations 
of Christians there are thirty-five million. Where 
are the other fifty-six million? With exceptions, 
where in the churches in proportion to their 
number are the leaders of industry, leaders in 
finance, manufacturers, merchants, leaders of 
commerce, statesmen, scientists, men of letters, 
artists, men of affairs prominent in every walk 
of life? Do they throng the churches? Where 
are the so-called society people? Do they throng 
the churches? Do they create by their example a 
church-going habit? These influential people do 
not throng the churches. They do not represent 
nor do they align themselves with the church as 
they do with interests commercial, social, politi- 
cal. Do they throw their powerful influence on 
the side of the church against drink, divorce, 
heathenish Sabbath, industrial wrong, and social 
vice in every form, against the slum, against the 
practical atheism of the millions who look up to 
them and consciously or unconsciously imitate 
their example, their follies, and their crimes, but 
ignore their virtues? Thousands, let it be said, 
of the most cultured, the most intellectual, the 
most successful men, merchants, leaders in finance 
world-builders — workers and thinkers in every 
field of human activity — do go to church, and 
they do stand out in forceful way for all that the 


church stands for, but thousands multiplied 
never do — they never go to church. 

The Reign of Might 

These are the people who are responsible for 
much of the breakdown in the moral life of 
America — the people who never go to church. 
They are the apostles of materialism. They de- 
spiritualize life, they destroy the noblest ideals. 
They surrender all to the flesh, to the material, 
to the life that is earthy, and by their example 
teach men so. By their example they teach the 
unnumbered thousands of men in their employ 
that the church is not a necessity. Is it any 
wonder, then, that millions of workingmen never 
go to church? It is no wonder. Nor is it any 
wonder that in times of industrial warfare, 
strikes, and lockouts, the brutal and lawless in- 
stincts of unspiritualized man should spring into 
life with the ferocity of the beast. Striking mobs 
are lawless. Who made them lawless? They are 
terrible and destructive, brutal and vindictive. 
Who made them so? Who set the example of 
contempt for law, human and divine? Who led 
them away by example from spiritulizing forces, 
from refining influences, from habits of reverence, 
from the influence of religion upon the human 
spirit? Who showed them how to forget God? 
Who taught them that not God but gold is might, 
and might is right ? Well, you taught well. They 
have learned their lesson. For the songs of the 


church they are singing the songs of the coming 
revolution. In conventions and chapels and 
lodges they are singing 

"Might was, is, and e'er will be 

The one and only Right, 
And so, O hosts of Toil awaken! 

O workingmen unite! 
Unite! Unite! For Might is Right, 

'Tis Freedom's only way, 
'Tis the logic of the Ancient World 

And the Gospel of to-day." 

You set at naught the gospel of the Son of God, 
and you get instead the gospel of the brute. 
These millions taught by your example will in 
due time also ignore the religion you now ignore. 
And what then? In due time they too will smile 
at the rewards of heaven and the fear of hell. In 
due time this people who have by your example 
lost their God and flung away their heaven will 
claim the earth and all there is in it. And why 

The Loss to the Church 

But look for a moment on another side of this 
subject. Consider in all its magnitude, if you 
can, the loss to the church and to the moral char- 
acter and energy of the nation that is represented 
by the loss of those who never go to church. What 
a loss is here to society to every good cause, to 
every high and holy purpose of the best citizens, 
to the lofty patriotism of the best men and women 


of America! What rivers of rejuvenating energy 
would pour through, all channels of our social, 
political, and religious life if this element stood 
with the church and for the church! Reen- 
forced by the intellectual power, the spiritualized 
moral sense, and the personal influence of the 
educated but non-churchgoing masses of America, 
the church could destroy the slum, the breeding 
place of crime; it could annihilate the drink 
traffic, purify the theater, art, and the literature 
of pornocracy, elevate the whole moral tone of 
society, and ennoble human life to a degree that 
would gladden the heart of God. 

My appeal, then, is to this element in American 
life. From the standpoint of patriotism alone, if 
it must be, the appeal is to these men to do their 
duty. Every good citizen owes something to his 
country. You owe something to the moral wel- 
fare of the state, since without morals there 
would be no state. You owe it to yourselves. You 
owe it to the hundreds of thousands of working- 
men in your employ. You owe it to yourselves 
to line up with the best for the best — to recognize 
the Sabbath of God and go to church ! That you 
are not Christians or believers in Christianity 
does not cancel your obligations. The church has 
made you what you are — a civilized being. You 
owe something to the state, and you have no right 
to weaken by your example the pillars of the 
state. You are not called upon to believe against 
conviction, or to indorse the opinions of the pul- 


pit. You are not compelled or invited to unite 
with the church without the experience of the 
church because you go to church; but you are 
called upon to honor the majesty of God, to re- 
spect his institutions and his laws. You are 
called upon to contribute by your example to the 
moral health of society, to the preservation of 
law and order, to the growth of reverence for the 
sanctities of life. This is your duty. 

And who knows but that by the unexpected 
opening of some window in your soul you may see, 
as a far away mountain peak lifting his snowy 
crown of glory into the infinite blue, the eternal 
truth of God, and "rise upon the stepping stones 
of your dead selves to higher things" than the 
gross materialism of a godless life. It is quite 
possible that you may see the real church through 
the earthly building. You may see the multitudes 
which no man can number of all the ages, the 
highest and holiest of all the centuries, and, like 
Bunyan, looking wistfully at the holy ones enter- 
ing the celestial city, wish yourself among them. 
As a recent dramatist makes one of his characters 
say : "Some people never see it at all. [That is, 
the spiritual church.] You must understand, 
this is no dead pile of stones and unmeaning 
timber. It is a living thing. When you enter it 
you hear a sound — a sound as of some mighty 
poem chanted. Listen long enough, and you will 
learn that it is made up of the beating of human 
hearts, of the nameless music of men's souls — 


that is, if you have ears. If you have eyes, you 
will presently see the church itself — a looming 
mystery of many shapes and shadows leaping 
sheer from floor to dome. The work of no ordi- 
nary builder! The pillars of it go up like the 
brawny trunks of heroes; the sweet human flesh 
of men and women is molded about its bulwarks, 
strong, impregnable; the faces of little children 
laugh out from every corner stone; the terrible 
spans and arches of it are the joined hands of 
comrades ; and up in the heights and spaces there 
are inscribed the numberless musings of all the 
dreamers of the world. It is yet building — build- 
ing and built upon. Sometimes the work goes 
forward in deep darkness; sometimes in blinding 
light; now beneath the burden of unutterable an- 
guish, now to the tune of great laughter and 
heroic shoutings like the cry of thunder. Some- 
times, in the silence of the nighttime, one may 
hear the tiny hammerings of the comrades at 
work up in the dome — the comrades that have 
climbed ahead." 

Would you join these comrades in building the 
kingdom of God, join hands with the noblest 
workers and thinkers who are building the king- 
dom of God? 

Courage, O Church of the Living God 

And now to you who honor your Lord and seek 
him in his holy temple, and who therefore love 
your country with more intelligent devotion. 


never despair of religion or of the church. Never 
despair of religion. It will never die. "Hast thou 
not known," says the prophet Isaiah, "hast thou 
not heard, that the everlasting God, the Lord, the 
Creator of the ends of the earth, fainteth not, 
neither is weary? There is no searching of his 
understanding. He giveth power to the faint; 
and to them that have no might he increaseth 
strength. Even the youths shall faint and be 
weary, and the young men shall utterly fall : But 
they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their 
strength; they shall mount up with wings as 
eagles ; they shall run and not be weary ; and they 
shall walk, and not faint." 

Never despair of religion. Never despair of the 
church. The eternal years of God are hers. 
"Upon this rock I will build my church, and the 
gates of hell shall not prevail against it." It is 
now the church militant, subject to the fluctua- 
tions of the battlefield. To-morrow it will be the 
church triumphant. With all its drawback it is 
ever advancing. Where the vanguard camps to- 
day, the rear guard camps to-morrow. The sun 
will never go down on the Church of God! 

As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form, 
Swells from the vale and midway leaves the storm, 
Tho' round its breast the rolling clouds are spread, 
Eternal sunshine settles on its head. 

Hear the cry of the apostle for his country. 
Lift a prayer for your own. 




President Willamette University, Salem, 


Carl G. Doney was born near Columbus, Ohio, 
June 24, 1867, and received his education in the 
following schools: Ohio State University (B.Sc, 
1891; LL.B., 1893; Ph.D., 1902) ; Ohio Wesleyan 
University (M.A., 1899). Harvard University 
(Postgraduate in Philosophy, 1891-92). He trav- 
eled in Europe and the Orient in 1913-1914. Dr. 
Doney entered the ministry in October, 1893, and 
has held the following pastorates: Bainbridge, 
Ohio, 1893-95; Centenary Church, Granville, 
Ohio, 1895-98; Saint Paul's, Delaware, Ohio, 1898- 
1900; King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio, 1900-1905; 
Hamline, Washington, D. C, 1905-1907. He was 
president of West Virginia Wesleyan College 
from 1907 to 1915. During his presidency a debt 
of over $80,000 was raised, the endowment almost 
doubled, and the enrollment of college students 
increased to five times the number it was when he 
became president. He is the author of The 
Throne Room of the Soul and The Efficient 
Church. He is a frequent contributor to the 
Methodist Review, The American Magazine, and 
other periodicals. At the spring meeting of the 
Board of Trustees he was elected to the presi- 
dency of Willamette University. 



"Jesus saith unto him, Feed my sheep." — John 21. 17. 

Two events in the life of Peter throw light upon 
this text. The one took place as he began his 
fellowship with Jesus, and the other at its earthly 
termination ; the one was the call to vocation, the 
other was the consecration of a life. 

The expected but unrecognized Messiah had ap- 
peared. His birth was attended by angelic wel- 
come, by the visit and gifts of the wise men, by 
the fear and strategy of a wicked king. Three 
decades passed by before the strange Child, now 
a baptized man, began his work. There on the 
seashore he stands in the midst of fishermen. 
They are laboring men, busy in seeking a hard 
livelihood, valuing their boats and nets and fish. 
Peter is one of them, and to him Jesus says, 
"Come ye after me," and the fisherman leaves his 
material wealth to become the companion of a 
wandering Stranger. 

For three years Peter was the follower of 
Jesus; now close to his heart, now afar off; a 
brave man and a coward; a defender and a 
denier; sweeping the gamut of hope and fear, of 



loyalty and desertion, of sacrifice and ambition. 
He had seen Jesus transfigured and witnesses his 
humiliation. He had bravely said, "Thou art the 
Christ," while others denounced him; later he 
had seen him on the cross and had beheld his 

And after all this Peter is back there on the 
seashore with his boats and nets and fishing. He 
had grown tired of waiting; something was lack- 
ing: his faith may have weakened or hope may 
have died out. At any rate, he tarried with up- 
turned, expectant face no longer; and instead he 
went back to drudgery and the old task. Once 
more he is on the shore facing the strange Man 
who now tenderly asks, "Peter, do you love me ? — 
love me? — love me?" "Jesus saith unto him, Feed 
my sheep," and Peter turns a second time and 
forever from his boats and nets. There Peter is 
a fisherman, here he is a shepherd; there he is 
making a living, here he is using a life; there he 
is a wavering lover, here he is the unshaken rock. 

Where did this happen? It took place last 
week in the room of a student. It was a long 
interview. The boats and nets and fish were 
there, and there was that strange Man saying, 
"Fisherman for yourself or shepherd for me?" 
I do not know what the answer was. When did 
this happen ? It took place yesterday in an office 
down town. The business man hesitated and 
fought, he saw the visions of the world spread 
before him and his face paled. The question was, 


"Fisherman for yourself or shepherd for me?" 
I do not know what answer he made to Jesus. 
When did this happen ? It took place this morn- 
ing in the soul of a young woman as she prayed. 
Life was not kind and she was tired; she won- 
dered if the struggle were worth while and if an 
easy way were not the better. She had to reply 
to the question, "Fisherman for yourself or 
shepherd for me?" I do not know what answer 
she made to Jesus. 

The scene will take place to-morrow and on all 
to-morrows. It is Jesus Christ offering to every 
soul the choice of service. He has identified him- 
self with a certain divine purpose; he has called 
for men who love him enough to believe in his 
purpose more than they do in anything else. He 
has seen the little handful of men who were his 
first disciples growing, growing through agony 
and strife; seen the old wilderness world giving 
place to peace and joy, seen the inevitableness of 
his plan and been absolutely sure that men could 
trust their lives to the certainty of God's care, 
absolutely sure that in the working out of God's 
will men wrought the perfect fulfillment of their 
own lives. 

The one supremel y grea t task for a man is to 
be true to the inner life and make it dominant. 
TEereTis an outer llfe^and it is Important ,"Tmt it 
must not be the only or the principal life. The 
outer life is the life of boats and nets and fishes, 
the life that asks about money and clothes and 


power and honor. These questions are not to be 
treated lightly. It is upon the material things 
that we build the intellectual and the spiritual. 
The college would not be were it not for bricks 
and books and men who made money to provide 
them. The church roots itself in tangible things 
and without them there would be no sound of 
hymn or prayer. Bjut there must be a distinction, 
and the highest wisdom of humankind liejL in 
making that distinction properly. That distinc- 
tion consists in determining what is primary, in 
giving to the seen and to the unseen the rank 
that is their due. 

In a sense there is no outer life until it becomes 
inner. There is no sound until we hear it, no 
light until we see it ; there is no joy or hope until 
we feel it ; there are no philosophers or poets, no 
historians or reformers until their thoughts and 
dreams enter our thought. There is nothing in 
all the world except it touch our inner life. The 
human mind is the great artificer. It builds up 
and it destroys, it analyzes phenomena and con- 
structs laws, it discovers forces and defines prin- 
ciples, it reveals worlds within the world and 
with the shock of its denial shatters them into 

In so far as the outer world is mastered, its 
king is the human mind. Power, law, systems, a 
coordinated universe represent the conquest of 
the inner over the outer. The ascent of mind has 
meant the subjugation of matter. When the mind 


of a Columbus conceived a New World a new 
world emerged. When the intellect of Watts and 
Stephenson, of Morse and Marconi, of Edison and 
Dolbear dreamed dreams of steam and electricity, 
incalculable power entered into bondage to man- 
kind. The mind first ; and then the hands of Ful- 
ton, Goodyear, Bessemer, Roebling, and McAdoo. 
The skill and daring of the modern engineer, the 
audacity and persistence of the inventor, the 
courage and endurance of the explorer, the magic 
and faith of the farmer — aye, the superhumanness 
of humankind only suggest the sovereignty of the 
inner over the outer life. 

The throne from which man himself is ruled 
is found within. The world of matter is held fast 
by laws of nature, laws which it can neither abro- 
gate nor change. The rock, the tree, the rushing 
avalanche, the storm — all are ruled from with- 
out. But man directs. Influenced and motived 
by a thousand forces, he still is a center of au- 
thority. He experiences, analyzes, and corre- 
lates; he inquires, thinks, and reasons; and then 
he decrees. He may decree the impossible or the 
foolish or the wise thing ; nevertheless, he decrees 
and power is released to execute his will. 

The inner life is the seat of obligation. There 
is nothing of duty or oughtness in matter; but 
from the inner sanctuary of the soul there issue 
those sublime impulsions which have given the 
race its galaxy of moral heroes. Hunger and cold 
men do not fear, contumely and scorn they will 


endure, isolation and sorrow they can bear, pain 
and death they may even welcome in order to 
keep inviolate the sacred summons which issue 
from the throne room of the inner life. 

This must come first. There are no final values 
outside the inner life : there are found the funda- 
mentals, the constants and the exponents which 
give worth and meaning to what man is and 
what he does. Every transformation making the 
world a fitter place to live in than it was six 
thousand years ago slept in the soul of Adam. 
Every vision needing to be realized before the 
Eden lost shall be restored again is slumbering in 
the secret places of the human mind. That is 
the treasure house from which every good has 
been extracted ; there lie the unfathomable riches 
which are still to make the earth a sweet and 
holy place of peace and joy. 

We need not wonder then that Jesus Christ 
should call men from nets and boats, from a life 
where the outer rules to a life where the inner 
has first place. He knew what kind of a man God 
had created, knew the infinite powers that had 
been packed away; he knew that man ought to 
value them more than anything else, knew that as 
man unfolded himself the old world would lay 
its hidden riches at his feet, knew that in no other 
way could man be himself and claim his own. 

And I am sure that Jesus knew how hard it is 
for men to give up being fishermen. A vision 
cannot clothe and feed the hungry, a vision can- 


not give us a home for wife and children. The 
visible so much appeals to us : it is there that we 
are nourished and find comfort and power. I 
cannot sell my vision for bread; bread comes 
from the field and I must sow and gather there. 
The unseen has no rating in the places of ex- 
change; merchandise has worth to give me 
friends and keep my body strong. Therefore I 
seek for things that can be seen and sold. 

It was not easy for Peter to leave his nets and 
boats. He could sail the boat and handle the 
nets, but he had never been a shepherd. The new 
work always makg^JmeJiesitale. Who knows the 
difficulties and defeats which lie in the untried 
paths? The known is not flippantly to be cast 
off for the unknown. Men do not master a voca- 
tion without time and effort, and when once a 
degree of success is attained they are slow to 
leave it. Experience breeds conservatism and 
knowledge is the mother of caution. 

Peter loved the old life too. The boats and 
nets were his, not by fiat, but by virtue of his 
thought and labor, his ambition and economy. 
Had he not wrought his life into them — poor, 
mean things perhaps, but his very own? How 
could he ever love another work as he loved this ? 
There lay his years floating on the sea, and to 
leave them was to leave himself. 

Ah, yes ; but from the moment the strange Man 
appeared Peter was undone. When he knew only 
his boats and fishing he could be content. But 


there are visions which disturb contentment, 
calls which break sleep forever. The eagle stirs 
up her nest, compelling the brood to learn to fly, 
and God always touches the soul with a summons 
to grow. When the youth met Socrates he had 
to be Plato ; when the monk climbing the steps at 
Rome heard the words, "The just shall live by 
faith," he was sealed to become Luther, the re- 
former; when John Wesley felt his heart strangely 
warmed he was bound by everlasting fealty to a 
new task; when Wendell Phillips heard the 
prison doors close upon Garrison in all the world 
there was but one thing for him to do ! In all the 
world there was but one thing for Plato and 
Luther and Wesley to do. They must obey the 
vision and bring it as a reality into the lives of 
other men. 

It requires a struggle to leave self and serve 
others, to forget the nets and become a shepherd. 
Men are sad when they first meet Jesus Christ: 
he asks so much of them. He breaks into the 
calm of their lives, destroys their purposes and 
loves and gives them a new order. But if they 
obey — ah, if they but obey! — winter is summer 
and storm is sunshine. In all the reaches of hu- 
man happiness there is no joy to be compared 
with that which comes when a man discovers that 
he has bound himself to the infinite and grown 
more fully into the likeness of the Divine. After 
long periods of selfishness and easy contentment, 
suddenly to find that he has clarified his soul, is 


doing a bigger work, a man's work, God's work, 
a man rejoices with a joy unutterable. 

Peter never returned to his boats. It is the 
testimony of his brave and steadfast after life 
that he never wanted them again. All that he 
suffered of poverty and contumely, of hate and 
imprisonment are mute but splendid evidences 
that it is better to be a shepherd than a fisher- 
man. When Assisi turned from plenty and ease 
to follow the inner gleam which made him the 
wonderful lover of the loveless, I am sure that 
there was some mighty compensation which made 
wealth and honor seem cheap and tawdry. When 
David Livingstone hid himself in the Dark Con- 
tinent, though stricken with fever and tortured 
by a daily death, he must have had an inner glory 
that made him count all as nothing in order that 
he might feel the throb of truth pulsing through 
his life to the meager life of others. 

Such souls have bartered the lower values and 
their inevitable life impoverishment for the 
splendor of the unseen. "Something divine," to 
use the words of Aristides, is surely mingled with 
a humanity that has made such ventures of faith, 
such offerings of the visible for the invisible as 
are on record. And men unaided do not conceive 
these things. It is Jesus Christ who flashes the 
vision before them and bids them exchange the 
lower for the higher. Nay, more than that: he 
himself is that vision and that call. Everything 
which he is represents the permanent and in- 


creased spiritual idealism of mankind. It is the 
spirit of Jesus Christ perennially present which 
gives to the race and to the individual that maj- 
esty and might which rolls the world from age to 
age into a whiter and stronger light. The spirit 
of Jesus Christ has been great enough to include 
in its own nature all the questions of society and 
politics and art and commerce, all questions 
practical and speculative, through all the reaches 
of the years. In every age he has been coming 
again and again; rather, he has never left man- 
kind alone. Since the dawn of creation Jesus 
Christ has been making his appeal in every great 
and vital question of justice. There has never 
been a time when he has not stood at the heart 
of every struggle between right and wrong. There 
has never been a reform which he did not sanc- 
tion, never a sin which he did not condemn. Em- 
pires and civilizations have risen and decayed, 
but through all the years of history, there has 
been one thing as lasting as eternity. It is the 
spirit of the ideal, the presence of truth, the ap- 
peal of right — all of which have found themselves 
alive and mighty in the incarnation and omnipo- 
tence of the personality of Jesus Christ. 

I know nothing that gives men greater hope 
than this. If there is a philosophy of history, 
that which gives outstanding unity to the series 
of events is the continual presence of what Jesus 
Christ stands for. Age after age he has appeared 
asking men to accept an enlargement of service 


and an added strength for the task. In one age 
he came to the world as the universal Brother 
and wrote in the hearts of men the divine decrees 
of human fellowship. Another time he appeared 
with messages concerning the home and made 
the race seal it with purity and righteousness. 
You will find him speaking to philosophers and 
scientists, invigorating them with a strong love 
of truth. He stands there, this imperial Figure 
among the cabinets of kings, the congresses of 
republics, imposing new trusts, exhorting to large 
faith, unfolding visions of the glory that should 
be. There he stands, the High Priest of human 
souls, girding and regirding them to battle, to 
sacrifice, to martyrdom, to death. I want you 
to see this. I want you to look into your histories 
to see just how Christ has been coming to the 
earth again and again in the decay of every evil, 
in the uprise of every good. Every reform has 
been his, every impulse which has driven man 
from contented littleness to undertake heroic 
greatness was first in his heart. He is the 
"quickening spirit." 

There is one thing for us to do. We are to be 
men and women of the open soul. The appeal of 
Christ comes to us. The work of our fathers is 
done; nevertheless, an eternal imperative is laid 
upon us. I do not know its particular character, 
but I do know that we are not left out, that every 
one of the open soul will be called again and again 
to leave boats and nets to become shepherds. The 


open soul will cause us to long for Christ's com- 
ing, will give us confidence in him and make us 
willing to labor with him. As I look at men 
who are doing things, I have come to believe that 
the attitude of a man is the great thing after all. 
He usually gets what he wants ; certainly he does 
not get anything good unless he wants it. If a 
man wants integrity and purity and righteous- 
ness, they wait upon him. Visions come to him 
with the upturned face; and he who opens his 
soul to Jesus Christ will surely find Christ com- 
ing in. It is the most natural thing in the world 
to expect it. The seed with an open soul to the 
earth and sunshine becomes more than a seed. 
The dynamo with the open soul to electricity 
turns night into day. Iron and steel with an open 
soul to steam creates the commerce of nations. 
A handful of wires with an open soul to the ether 
hurls a message for a thousand miles across 
space. A mind with the open soul to truth be- 
comes endowed with a power that crashes through 
bigotry and error. And a human spirit open to 
Jesus Christ binds to itself the omnipotence of 
Almighty God. 

Peter, the poor fisherman among his boats and 
nets; Peter rich with the soul that opened to 
every higher call never was so ennobled as when 
Christ bade him become a shepherd and he obeyed. 
In one of Miss Murfree's novels the old moun- 
taineer directs the stranger by telling him "al- 
ways to take the upper turn of the road." It is 


the whole philosophy of life. Always to be open 
to higher calls, always to take the upper turn 
in the road is for a man step by step to realize 
his kinship with the Divine. In all the expe- 
riences of time there is no greater tragedy and 
loss than for a man to accept the other alternative. 
Day after day to close one's soul to the recurrent 
Christ, to choose always the things of the outer 
life, to enter further and further into the ma- 
terial — this is to die the living death. 

Frankenstein, the young medical student de- 
scribed by Mrs. Shelley, created an automaton 
that looked and acted like a man. It lacked noth- 
ing but a soul to make it completely human, but 
this the young student could not give; and the 
awful creature, knowing its deformity, besought 
him day and night for a soul. Throughout the 
nations he fled, always pursued by the monster 
crying, "Give me a soul! Give me a soul!" 
Heine remarks that "These two figures can now 
be met with in every country" — men who stifle 
the inner life by the corrosiveness of excessive 
attention to the material. Christ never went 
deeper into the core of experience than when he 
stretched himself upon the cross and died for an 
idea. Patriotism never goes deeper than when 
a man fights and dies for an idea. Life never is 
holier than when it swears fealty to a vision, say- 
ing: "I cannot do other, God help me. Here I 


First Church, Portland, Oregon 

Frank L. Loveland is American in birth and 
ideals. Born during the Civil War, he was rocked 
in a sturdy cradle, carried in heroic arms. In his 
boyhood his life shared in the "short and simple 
annals of the poor." By dint of unyielding will, 
sturdy decision of character, and tireless effort, 
supplemented by unusual natural endowments, he 
has won for himself a name and place among the 
ablest in his chosen profession. He has been 
honored by the leading educational institutions of 
Methodism. He is a careful student not only of 
books, but men; of theology, and of sociology. 
He believes in the "Life that now is," as well as 
the "Life to come." He deals not in musty plati- 
tudes, but with vital living problems. He is a 
man beloved by men, a citizen honored in his own 
city; a minister whose sermons are heard by im- 
mense throngs and a lecturer whose Lyceum and 
Chautauqua messages call forth the most un- 
stinted praise. 





"What is that to us? see thou to that." — Matt. 27. 4. 

Among the incidents connected with the closing 
hours in the career of the Penniless Prince of 
Palestine none are more tragic than that from 
which this text is taken. The Christ has been 
delivered to his executioners. The tragedy of the 
cross was about to be enacted on Calvary's Hill. 
Judas Iscariot had betrayed him at the instiga- 
tion of the Sanhedrin, and this was the result of 
a conspiracy that grew out of the social, political, 
and religious life of Palestine. Judas Iscariot, 
being panic-stricken at his downfall and guilt, 
and seeking to undo his wrong, comes to the con- 
spirators and begs them to take back the silver and 
prevent the final act in that awful tragedy. With 
a heartlessness and scorn unequaled in the annals 
of selfishness, the conspirators refused to take 
back their blood-stained silver. They mercilessly 
piled the whole guilt of that shameful transaction 
upon the shoulders of Judas Iscariot. Unmind- 
ful of the consequences to the shivering culprit 
before them, unmindful of their own part in this 



transaction, unmindful of their responsibility, 
they say to him in reply to his agonized appeal 
to avert the awful consequences of his deed: 
"What is that to us? see thou to that!" 

The Crime of Society 

Although Pilate sought to wash his hands of 
the fearful affair of Calvary ; although the scribes 
and Pharisees heartlessly refused to accept any 
responsibility in the matter of the deed done by 
Judas Iscariot, the unalterable conclusion must 
be reached, however, that the crime was charge- 
able not alone to Judas, who has carried the con- 
tumely of the deed through the centuries, but to 
the social, political, and religious life of that day. 
In the light of modern sociological and theological 
science, these are unitedly pilloried as the arch 
criminals in this direful transaction. 

A Search for the Root of Responsibility 

We are seeking to-day for the fundamental 
causes of human sorrow, poverty, disease, and 
crime; and a search for these causes compels us 
to travel backward, past the sorrowing face, the 
sick body, the gaunt frames, and the prison stripes 
into the very centers of our society, homes, altars 
of churches, courts, and legislative halls. We are 
compelled to face the fact that we are our 
"brother's keeper" ; that there are mutual obliga- 
tions that cannot be abrogated by any social 
caste, political theory, or religious creed. The 


church, the school, and the state, as never before, 
are compelled to study the problem of mutual re- 
lationships and mutual obligations. The old 
union of church and state was a millstone that 
threatened to sink both the church and the state ; 
the new union of church and state that is being 
wrought out in our modern civilization is neither 
theological nor political alone, but humanitarian 
in its highest and best sense, and this union must 
some day be realized as a reality if the church 
and state are to endure. 

Man's Inestimable Value 

Humboldt tells us that "religion, law, property, 
and books are nothing but the scaffoldings to 
build a man — that nature holds up to her Creator 
no product but a perfect man." Jesus Christ 
taught the world no greater lesson than that of 
the value of humanity. When Jesus was born in 
Bethlehem of Judaea, seventy per cent of the popu- 
lation was in slavery and serfdom; human flesh 
was cheaper than beef. Pollio could feed his 
Lampreys upon child's flesh — it was cheaper than 
mutton. Christ discussed the question with man 
of that day as to whether a man was any better 
than a sheep. The religious and political leaders 
took the negative of the question; Christ alone 
took the affirmative. The most momentous truth 
taught by Jesus of Nazareth was that man was 
the son of God, that he had an abiding and eternal 
value. He set the slave upon his feet and put 


upon his brow the crown of a deathless destiny. 
He taught the world that humanity was of such 
value that it was worth the life of the Son of God 
to restore it to its pristine dignity. He died to 
redeem humanity because humanity was worth 
it. The old doctrine of man's worthlessness, as 
evidenced by both church and state for over 
fifteen hundred years since the death of Christ, 
has been one of the greatest wrongs perpetuated 
upon humanity. "The preaching of the doctrine 
of the total and unalleviated depravity of the hu- 
man race has been, not only a theological and so- 
ciological blunder, but has been a crime against 
society and an outrage on public morals," says a 
prominent Presbyterian preacher; and it is a 
significant truth, even though sadly belated. 

The Era of Mutuality 

Another of the fundamental truths taught by 
Jesus of Nazareth was the intimate relation that 
every man bears to every other man. He taught 
that the race is a unit and every specification of 
church and state should be for the preservation 
of this unit ; he taught the Fatherhood of God and 
the brotherhood of man; but for hundreds of 
years these great truths have had the doors of 
both church and state slammed in their faces, and 
its only within your lifetime and mine that hu- 
man brotherhood has come back to both church 
and state, and we are now trying to atone for the 
tardiness of our reception of it by the splendid 


promises which we hold out for its future 

The church has passed through great eras in 
the bygone centuries. In the early ages of the 
church's history its battles were fought around 
the personality and divinity of Jesus Christ. 
This was followed by the great era of organiza- 
tion and the propaganda of ecclesiastical systems. 
The Reformation — the egg of which was laid by 
Erasmus and hatched by Martin Luther — pro- 
duced an era of mental and spiritual enfranchise- 
ment of the individual. This was followed by 
the rise and growth of sectarianism ; but the days 
of dogmatism and ecclesiasticism are passing and 
the church of to-day is swinging with tremendous 
strides into the era of social redemption. To- 
day the term "salvation" has a larger meaning 
than ever before. It means not only the salvation 
of the soul but the salvation of the body, the 
mind, the home, the city, the state, and society. 
Health is recognized as a necessary part of our 
religion. We are now believing that the culture 
of the human intellect is as necessary as the cul- 
ture of the human conscience, that "the brain is 
as divinely a part of man as is his heart." We 
now believe that the church has no right to talk 
about "full salvation" unless it is intended to in- 
clude the human body and all the environments 
and appliances in the city and state that relate 
thereto. "Full salvation to-day means the school, 
the training of head and hand and heart, the 


proper culture with books and tools — classical, 
moral, manual, industrial, vocational. It means 
the redemption of the entire human being, the 
opening of every prison door whether physical, 
intellectual, or spiritual." The gospel of to-day 
includes soap, clean water, pure food, fresh air, 
and healthful environment, as well as the 
mourners' bench and the baptismal font. He who 
preaches a narrower gospel than this preaches a 
travesty upon the spirit and teachings of Jesus 
Christ. A modern preacher says : "The full gospel 
of Jesus Christ means a new social order. Our 
modern evangelistic cant about 'saving souls' is 
but a poor caricature of the thought of the 
Master. Jesus came not to save souls merely, 
but to save humanity. The program of the Naza- 
rene is more than the rescue of individuals from 
a future hell — it is the salvation of society that he 
proposes. He sends his disciples forth not alone 
with a message of personal regeneration, but with 
a message of civic reform — a preaching of environ- 
ment, a prophetic call to social and national 
righteousness — and without this the full gospel 
is not preached. It is easier and cheaper to get 
our own souls saved, and realize a narrow stand- 
ard of personal virtue, than it is to sacrifice our 
selfish personal interests to Christ's ideal of 
social righteousness. It is easier to consecrate 
a graveyard than it is a market place. It is easier 
to make sacred the sanctuary than the shop, the 
store, the home; but who doubts that the latter 


is as necessary as the former? A religion that 
cannot save society from hell here will, I fear, 
fail to save souls from hell hereafter. 

The Circle of [Responsibility 

We are now becoming intensely conscious of 
the fact that society is responsible for its prod- 
ucts; that poverty, disease, and crime root 
themselves back in society itself. They reach into 
the home, the church, the school, the courts, and 
legislative halls; and the real preacher of Jesus 
Christ and the real reformer and sociologist must 
take their stand at the doors of our reformatories 
and penal institutions, our police courts and 
asylums, our poorhouses and our hospitals, and 
with courage unfaltering and in no uncertain 
tones, demand that society itself must enter the 
dock with the prisoner, must stand in the slum 
with the degraded, must sit in the hovel with the 
poor, and in the hospital ward with the diseased, 
and there be placed on trial with the pitiful sub- 
jects that have been sentenced by law, or other- 
wise, to a place therein. Caesar, the president; 
Pilate, the governor; Herod, the mayor; Annas, 
the teacher ; and Caiaphas, the preacher, must be 
placed on trial alongside with Judas Iscariot. 
Victor Hugo in the greatest novel of the ages, Les 
Miserables, says that, "the representatives of so- 
ciety called legislators, judges, bishops, and police- 
men are simply lesser planets moving around a 
giant soul called Jean Valjean who is the incar- 


nation of all the. social misery of his time. In the 
mouth of the good bishop he puts these words, 
"Sin is a darkness of the mind. The state that 
permitted the ignorance and darkness of Jean 
Valjean, should be sent to jail with the thief." 
He further portrays in merciless speech the ac- 
tions of the corrupt and brutal police officers 
and the state's attorney as they applied "third 
degree methods" for the extortion of evidence 
which they had not brains enough to secure in a 
legitimate manner; and when the victims are 
finally sentenced to be hung, the old bishop said, 
when the people applauded the state's attorney's 
scheme, "This man and woman will go to the 
scaffold, but who will hang the state's attorney?" 
In answering the question, "Who is the greatest 
criminal," we are often compelled to hesitate as 
to whether we shall answer, "The man in the 
prisoner's dock, the state, the court, the church, 
society, or the parents." While I am ready to 
admit that neither the church nor state can afford 
to deny, excuse, or palliate individual responsi- 
bility and its consequent results, yet I do not 
hesitate to say that the mental acumen evidenced 
by the ordinary police officer or ecclesiastically 
bound preacher are not of such a type as to make 
them competent judges as to the real line of 
cleavage between social and individual respon- 
sibility, nor clothe them with the necessary ability 
to pass judgment and execute sentence in most 
cases that come before them. If anyone doubts 


this, let him examine with care the criminal court 
dockets of this country or listen to the ordinary 
dogmatical sermon on the salvation of the soul. 

The Vital Law op Heredity 

The conditions that surround modern humanity 
demand that the church, the state, and the school 
shall join hands in the promulgation of the truth 
of the fundamental commandment, given on 
Sinai, that the sins of the fathers are visited upon 
the children, even to the third and fourth genera- 
tion. This is a law as inexorable as fate; its 
truth is as impregnable as Gibraltar. It is the 
flaming protest of high heaven, a solemn warning 
from the throne of the Eternal that must not go 
unheeded. Scientists to-day demonstrate beyond 
a doubt that heredity is vital in the production 
of a perfect life. It is a fearful thing to start a 
life defectively. Luther Burbank says that it is 
a vegetable crime to breed defective plants. The 
farmer to-day has decreed that the nubbin, the 
runt, and scrub must go and that every product 
of the farm must be of the highest type. In the 
realm of man the same law holds true. Look 
about you and see the diseased, the defective, the 
criminal which are as much the result of bad 
breeding as is the nubbin, the runt, and scrub of 
the farm. It is time for parents to learn that the 
sins of one generation lame the next generation. 
"That blood transmits physical weakness, mental 
decay, moral degeneracy." It should be widely 


understood that one may damn his own offspring 
before it is born, that a father may predispose his 
child or grandchild to kleptomania and alcohol- 
ism, that "a mother's dishonesty may decree her 
daughter's profligacy, that parental wickedness 
may predestinate filial crime." "Heredity often 
strikes a blow that makes a misshapen skull and 
produces a moral pervert." While I do not for 
one moment believe that God ever created a 
criminal or foreordained a crime, yet Almighty 
God has established certain laws — physical, men- 
tal, and moral — in this universe, and by a viola- 
tion of those laws parents and society and the 
state may predispose humanity toward the con- 
ditions which all would wish to avoid. 

Race Suicide 

In recent years we have heard much about the 
perils of race suicide, but let it be known that 
this land of ours is in no danger from race sui- 
cide, but it is in danger from race degeneracy. 
History has no record of any nation having gone 
down for lack of numbers, but the banks of the 
stream of time are strewn with the wreck of na- 
tions that have gone down because of the lack of 
physical and moral worth. Not race suicide but 
race degeneracy is the curse of our day. 

Disease, A Physical and Social Depravity 

We were once taught to believe that blindness, 
deafness, tuberculosis, and many other kinds of 


suffering were necessary and unpreven table ; 
that we had to accept blind eyes and deaf ears 
and diseased lungs as we accept the havoc of 
tornadoes and cyclones. But we now know that 
these things are not to be laid at the door of 
Divine Providence but at the door of mankind, 
and that they are due in a large measure to igno- 
rance, stupidity, and to the sins of the parents, 
city, and state. We know that more than seventy- 
five per cent of the blindness in the world is 
caused by a form of ophthalmia for which society 
and the parents are responsible. Science is veri- 
fying what the Old Testament taught three thou- 
sand years ago, and the time has come when there 
is no excuse for ignorance upon this matter. To- 
day the religious, the social, the physiological, 
the scientific, and the patriotic demand is that 
we shall adjust our religious and civic machinery 
to the proper dealing with these great questions. 
I was once possessed of the opinion that the 
mourners' bench could cure all these personal and 
political ills of humanity. While I believe that 
the gospel of Jesus Christ will do all for hu- 
manity it was ever intended or expected to do, 
yet it cannot become operative and effective un- 
less intelligently applied to the source and seat 
of the difficulty. The application of the mourn- 
ers' bench, the baptismal font, and the confirma- 
tion ceremony are too often from one to one 
hundred years too late to accomplish the end 


An Impious and Heartless Question 

The mutual obligations therefore of both 
church and state are pressing with a tremendous 
force upon the question of moral and intellectual 
progress. "Have I not a right to do what I will 
with my own?" is a more impious, selfish, and 
cruel question to-day than it was in the time of 
the Galilean. No man has a right to do what 
he will with his own unless it ministers to the 
well-being of humanity as well as himself. The 
failure to recognize this is a fundamental failure 
in the church as well as the state. Money, ability, 
honors, official position, are but trust funds 
placed in our hands for the benefit of the wounded, 
weak, and mentally or morally belated children of 
God, rather than to be greedily hoarded for per- 
sonal and selfish satisfaction. 

Philanthropy That is Folly 

Another fundamental obligation resting to-day 
upon the church and state is to articulate by 
proper method our charitable and philanthropic 
work to the prevention rather than the allevia- 
tion of the immoral and degrading conditions of 
society. The parable of the good Samaritan car- 
ries a divine principle and a timeless spirit. The 
method employed by the good Samaritan, how- 
ever, is not remedial nor applicable to twentieth 
century conditions. Fundamental principles are 
never outgrown, but the methods used by one 


generation in the application of the principles 
may not be applicable to the next generation. 
Giving local assistance to a wounded traveler is 
a noble and necessary thing to do, but it does not 
go far enough. It does not reach the root of the 
matter. It in no wise removes the cause. A new 
victim will be found by the roadside every day, 
and, like Tennyson's brook, this will go on for- 
ever unless some method shall be used to destroy 
the robbers that infest the road leading from 
Jerusalem to Jericho. As some one has said, 
"The best Samaritan is he who paves, lights, and 
polices the Jericho road." Personally, I am shed- 
ding fewer tears over the drunkard and spending 
more time to find out why the saloon upon the 
corner or the bootlegger in the alley is allowed 
to remain. It is beautiful to carry flowers to the 
typhoid patient, but it is better to find out why 
there is a polluted water supply. It is excellent 
to help buy coffins for dead babies, but it is in- 
finitely more excellent to destroy the greed and 
graft that permits social conditions that out- 
Herods Herod in slaughtering the innocents. It 
is a beautiful emotion that exhibits itself in the 
hand-out at the back door, but it is a more beau- 
tiful emotion that shall make the eye to glitter 
with the holy passion as you strike at the infa- 
mous child labor that is allowed to go on in this 
country in the interest of greed and selfishness, 
not only on the part of the manufacturer but on 
the part of the consumer ; a condition that breeds 


dwarfed, anemic, weak, rickety, defective, puny, 
stunted millions from whose ranks are annually 
recruited a quarter of a million tramps ; an army 
moving through the country like the deadly army 
worms, spreading disease and committing crimes 
over which ill-guided philanthropy expends it- 
self. It is a religious duty to care for the poor 
drab, the scarlet girl, but it is a more profoundly 
religious duty for the church to rise up and de- 
mand that social conditions of which the scarlet 
woman is the natural product shall be abolished 
from our civilization. Social conditions that 
drive womanhood into the realm of industry, 
where she becomes the prey to selfishness, as is 
shown in the pitifully low wages paid her in fac- 
tories, stores, etc. ; conditions of the servant girls 
in our Christian homes, where they are not 
allowed to have the rights or privileges of a parlor 
for the entertainment of their friends and are 
thus driven to the public parks, are the conditions 
which are more important and pressing in their 
demands upon the mind, heart, and conscience of 
the church than the shedding of a tear over some 
delinquent girl. There used to be a time when 
the best doctor was rated as the one who could 
most successfully cure disease; to-day the best 
doctor is the one who most successfully prevents 
disease. Yesterday the best lawyer was supposed 
to be he who could most successfully litigate a 
case before judge or jury ; to-day the best lawyer 
is he who can most successfully prevent litigation. 


For all too loag we have supposed that the best 
philanthropist; the best Samaritan, was he who 
poured oil and wine into the wounds of some poor 
bruised traveler; but, rather, he is the best phil- 
anthropist who assists with his money, his brains, 
and his influence to destroy the conditions that 
as surely breed crime, poverty, and disease as 
stagnant water breeds mosquitoes. 

The Demand of Patriotism 

In conclusion, let me say that Christian patriot- 
ism is demanding a recognition of the mutual 
obligations that rest upon us as a people. I de- 
light to trace in the rise and fall of nations the 
finger of God, and I strive to read the Almighty's 
plan on the historic page. In the Far East ap- 
peared the first faint light of civilization's dawn, 
and since then, "Westward the star of empire" 
has taken its way, while each succeeding nation 
that rose in its luminous path, like flowers in the 
footsteps of our dear Lord, has reached a higher 
plane and wrought out a grander destiny. But 
the cycle is now complete. The Star now blazes 
in the world's uttermost West, and by the law of 
progress which has persevered through the cen- 
turies past, here if anywhere must we look for 
that dawn of which prophets have fondly dreamed 
and for which philanthropists have prayed. The 
awful responsibility of leadership among the na- 
tions is upon us as a people. We have torn the 
diadem from kingly brows and have placed the 


scepter of authority in the hands of the people. 
We have undertaken to lead the human race from 
the Slough of Despond to the Delectable Moun- 
tains where justice reigns supreme and every son 
of man may find life worth living. We must make 
good our glorious promises. The eyes of the 
world are upon us in hope or fear, in prayer or 
protest. We must not fail. 

America in Danger 

Thoughtful men tell us that America is in 
danger, that it may yet be lost, that the star- 
spangled banner may yet be torn to tatters by the 
fierce winds that blow from the deep caverns of 
human hatred, greed, and selfishness. DeTocque- 
ville, the great French economist, tells us that 
American democracy is only an experiment that 
has not yet demonstrated its power to solve the 
problem which itself creates. Tolstoy, the Rus- 
sian philosopher, before his death, argued that 
America was drifting toward a cataclysm in 
civilization, that it would make the descent into 
the valley of the dark ages unless both church 
and state awakened to the speedy realization of 
their obligations to the great zones of humanity 
which are liable to breed the cyclones that shall 
sweep our civilization from the face of the earth. 
Our American patriotism demands that we shall 
heed these warnings. "Shall this 'government 
of the people, by the people, and for the people' 
perish from the earth," is a more vital query to- 


day than when Lincoln delivered his immortal 
address by the bloody billows of Gettysburg. 
"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" 
means more to-day than it did when Washington 
prayed at the snowy altars of Valley Forge. The 
ideas of human liberty, human perfection, human 
happiness are permeating our civilization as 
never before. Before God, I do believe that this 
age of selfishness, greed, and heartlessness will 
pass as passed the age of ignorance and the age 
of tyranny. I believe the day will come — O 
blessed dawn! — when both church and state will 
be in spirit and in truth a band of brothers, and 
the wrongs of one will be the concern of all. We 
must go forward, we must press on to grander 
heights and greater glories or see the laurels al- 
ready won, turn to ashes on our brows. We may 
sometimes slip, shadows may obscure the path, 
bowlders may bruise our feet, there may be days 
of agony and months of mourning, but I say unto 
you, brothers and sisters mine, that the church 
of the living God and the state that we dearly 
love, must and will unite their hands, their heads, 
their hearts in one grand effort for the uplift and 
salvation of the race, and shall determine that 
this civilization of ours, born of our fathers' blood 
and sanctified by our mothers' tears, shall never 
pass away ; and that the church of the living God 
shall place a redeemed humanity in the palm- 
pierced hands of the Prince of Peace. 

First Church, Eugene, Oregon 

Herbert Swann Wilkinson is a native of Michi- 
gan and a son of the parsonage, his father being 
the Rev. Thomas Wilkinson, of the Detroit and 
later of the Dakota Conferences. He is a gradu- 
ate of Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa, and 
of the Boston University School of Theology. In 
1907 he was honored with the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity by his Alma Mater. He joined the 
Upper Iowa Conference in 1893 and has since 
occupied leading pulpits in the Dakota, Califor- 
nia, and Oregon Conferences. While pastor at 
Mitchell, South Dakota, the great church there 
was built under his leadership and the church 
membership trebled. He was transferred to the 
California Conference and served the Howard 
Street Church in San Francisco. In 1910 he was 
transferred to the Oregon Conference and sta- 
tioned at Eugene, Oregon, where during his 
pastorate one of the finest churches on the Coast 
has been built to house the great congregation of 
over thirteen hundred members. 

Eugene is the seat of the State University and 
the church here occupies one of the strategic 
places of influence. 




"And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good 
thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, 
Come and see." — John 1. 46. 

The saying is familiar, "God made the coun- 
try and man made the town"; and a friend of 
mine adds, "But the devil made the little country 
town." Nazareth seems to have been such a little 
country town. Its reputation was bad. Its peo- 
ple were held in the grip of an unbelief which 
made Jesus marvel at them, and made it impos- 
sible for him to do many mighty works there. It 
was Nazareth which attempted his life, so that it 
seemed best to remove his headquarters to Caper- 
naum. Nathanael was from the same province 
and knew its character well, and he asks, "Can 
any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip 
does not attempt to argue the question but throws 
out the challenge, "Come and see." 

It is now some years since Henry van Dyke 
wrote his book The Gospel for an Age of Doubt. 
The age is, however, still accurately characterized 
by that title. Doubt, however, may be used in 
two senses. 



1. Doubt as Scrutiny 

This is the sense in which Dr. Van Dyke used 
it. Not unbelief, but scrutiny. It signifies an 
attitude of mind which seeks information, which 
probes for the foundations of belief and au- 
thority. The symbol of the age is a question 
mark; its motto is "Query." The question mark, 
however, does not signify a desire to prove things 
untrue, but to establish them in their true char- 
acter as either true or false. Perhaps below such 
a spirit is a high quality of faith — the faith that 
life's highest interests are served only by those 
things which are true; a faith that the soul can 
never be nourished at the breast of falsehood; 
that no fires of holy aspiration can be kindled at 
the altar of a lie; a faith that the God of truth 
can only be approached through the avenues of 
sincere intellectual processes, and that reason and 
experience, thought and life will ultimately dis- 
cover him. 

As far as this is true of our age, or of an in- 
dividual, it should be an occasion for gratification 
rather than alarm. Could soil be more propitious 
for producing a vital religion? Does anyone be- 
lieve that the pursuit of truth, fearlessly, sin- 
cerely, passionately, would move us farther away 
from God, who is its source and goal? Would 
it not be folly, would it not be false, would it not 
be treasonable to ourselves and to God to think 
and say that the age of highest intellectual ac- 
tivity necessarily was moving away from belief 


in God and desire for a life of harmony with his 

2. Doubt as Uncertainty. Perplexity 

This is also prevalent in our time to a greater 
degree. It would be remarkable if it were not. 
We have been and are living in an age of transi- 
tion. The intellectual turmoil of the past fifty 
years has never been equaled in the history of 
thought. It is no wonder that men are still gasp- 
ing for breath amid the swirling currents that 
have come upon us during the past few decades. 
Science, with its evolutionary view of the uni- 
verse, pushed out the sides and ends of the world. 
Archeology found such masses of material that 
we have constructed great civilizations back 
yonder in what we had regarded as the unpeopled 
past. The critical method rose up like a young 
giant whose wine had gone to his head, and we 
feared he was running amuck through the deli- 
cate gardens of faith. Psychology probed rather 
remorselessly into the sacred experiences of the 
soul, and we wondered if the holy places of the 
inner life were not being touched by profane 
hands. Some day we shall realize as we do not 
now the turmoil of these tremendous years and 
shall see how vital was the faith which lived 
through them and gathered from them the nutri- 
ment and the exercise which made faith mightier 
than ever. Any one of these great movements 
would have given exhilaration to the generation 


which must encounter it. Together they formed 
a menace to the footing of any faith that was not 
held steady by a personal vision of Christ. Dr. 
H. G. Mitchell used to say to his students as they 
plunged into the vexing Old Testament problems, 
"Young men, if you have personal knowledge of 
Jesus Christ, and such experiences with him day 
by day, that he is the most real of all realities to 
you, you are ready for these perplexing problems ; 
if you are not sure of your relationship to him, 
you are not ready for this study, or for the 
Christian ministry." Nor, friends, are you 
ready for life. Christ alone is the resolver of 
doubt. He alone is the irrefutable argument, 
the invincible champion, the impregnable fortress 
of faith. 

Philip gave the answer which an honest investi- 
gator would covet. It is a challenge to the scien- 
tific spirit. Is this the age of science? Then 
here is its challenge. Christianity invokes the 
age to investigate its claims. 

Two great maxims rule in the scientific world. 
The first is, "Be sure of your facts." So Paul 
says, "Prove all things; hold fast that which is 
good." Nothing can be more vital to Christian 
living than a clear and vivid understanding of 
the facts upon which the Christian faith is based. 
It would be gratifying to think the age is disposed 
to examine carefully, searchingly, exhaustively, 
into the facts and phenomena of Christianity. 
We do not fear the disposition to investigate so 


much as the disposition to ignore. The facts are 
here. Facts of its history, of its achievements, 
its teachings, its moral reconstructions, its moral 
inspirations. Its effects upon personal and social 
life. We say, "Study the facts" Divest your- 
self in true scientific spirit of preconceived no- 
tions, of inherited prejudices, and study the facts, 
for by these methods we attain success. 

The second great maxim of science is, "Adopt 
that theory of explanation which presents fewest 
difficulties while best explaining all the facts." 
Accept that theory as true and order your work 
by it until you get a better one. That is the scien- 
tific method. That is what science is doing with 
the theory of gravitation. It is but a theory. But 
it works fairly well. That is what science is 
doing with the theory of light, of sound, of heat ; 
with its theories of atoms and of evolution. They 
are merely speculative — all of them. But they 
will govern the activities of the scientific world 
until they are superseded by better ones. 

Apply this maxim to Christianity. There is no 
such theory of explanation of the universe as that 
which begins the Hebrew Scriptures — "In the be- 
ginning God." There is no scientific theory of 
which I know which does not, unless we are to 
do violence to logic, require a God to make it 
work. There is no scheme of morality which 
finds either consistency or authority without the 
implication of God as revealed in the Book of 
God. There is no working explanation of human 


life which compares in helpfulness and inspira- 
tion with that found in the New Testament. 
There is no adequate satisfaction of, or explana- 
tion of, spiritual desires outside of that which 
is provided here. Men want help. Christ gives 
it. Men want the sense of harmony and union 
with the Infinite — Christ supplies it. Men want 
some explanation of trouble and sorrow — Christ 
affords it. Men want the feeling that at the heart 
of the world is some one that cares, that life is 
not without some tender significance — Christ as- 
sures it. Men want a second chance when they 
have failed — Christ offers it. Men want the 
knowledge of an Infinite Companion whejo_±hey 
go down into valley and shadowr-dChrist reveals 
One. Men want answers to the three great ques- 
tions which Kant says no man can avoid 
asking, "What can I know, What may I hope, 
What must I do?" — Christ answers them to the 
heart rest of increasing millions. Only a man 
incurably unwise would turn away from the life 
begetting affirmations of Jesus to the barren 
denials of willful doubt. The scientific spirit 
of this modern time ought to save him from such 
superlative folly. 

The answer of Philip implied that Nathanael 
had power to see. The court to which Christ ap- 
peals is in every man's soul. Every human born 
into the world has that in him which responds to 
the truth. Paul said, "Commending ourselves to 
every man's conscience." The gospel is adjusted 


to the fundamental nature of man. When Christ 
commanded his disciples to disciple all nations he 
knew his gospel would work. "He knew what 
was in man." When preached to Greek it took 
hold of the heart. When preached at Rome it 
found followers. When men took it into the 
savage tribes of Germany it found lodgment in 
their wild bosoms and subdued their wildness. 
The dweller amid the eternal snows finds it speaks 
to his heart. William Taylor went to India with 
the flaming message, and the sons of Brahma laid 
hold of it. He took it to the Kaffirs of South 
Africa — savage, naked, untouched by tradition of 
Christianity — and they laid hold of it. Han- 
nington suffered martyrdom in Uganda to tell the 
story, and Uganda is becoming, is, a Christian 
state. Bishop Joyce, of blessed memory, used to 
tell with burning eloquence how he visited mis- 
sion after mission in his trip of supervision 
around the world, and how as he presided at the 
Japanese Conferences his- heart was thrilled as 
men told with shining faces of the joy of their 
souls at the salvation of Jesus ; in China the chil- 
dren of Confucius stood in quiet dignity and told 
how the story of Jesus had made their lives new ; 
how in India the children of the Vedas who had 
become the children of the Gospels told how Jesus 
had given them the "stillness of the heart"; how 
in western Africa the emancipated slaves of a 
worse than physical slavery shouted with ecstatic 
joy the praises of a saving Christ, and how from 


his own land all around the world he had heard 
in every tongue the testimony of the gospel's 
power to satisfy the soul of man. 

Sometimes men fear that religion will cease to 
hold the heart of man. Sometimes they fear that 
the altars of faith will be deserted, that the 
sacred books need defense, that the gospel will 
lose its power. Fear not, my fellow man. The 
gospel is given to satisfy the fundamental needs 
of men. The music of redemption will never cease 
to set the chords of life vibrating. The thunder 
of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to 
come will never cease to make men tremble. The 
thoughts of the life to come will never cease to 
woo. The birdling born in the chill Northland, 
just after the snows of winter are running away 
as laughing brooklets, play about the sunny 
meadows all through the long summer without 
much care, but grow restless as the leaves begin 
to fade and fall and days grow dull and chill and 
the sting of the wind grows sharper. Soon the old 
haunts no longer look like home and no longer 
satisfy. Then the call of the Southland, never 
seen, grows louder and louder in the trembling 
heart of the bird until one day its timidity be- 
comes daring, and it flies away and away to the 
land of perennial summer. Just so the heart of 
man will always hear the call of the fadeless 
summertime of the soul. God, and duty, and 
eternal life correspond to ineradicable native con- 
stituents of the soul of man. I do not fear that 


you will not be able to see if you come to Christ ; 
I only fear that you may not come. 

What it Meant to See 

Philip asked Nathanael to see — the Christ, not 
the disciples; to see the model rather than the 
copies. The followers of Christ are often like 
children in school attempting to reproduce in 
their awkward unskillful lines the picture which 
the skillful teacher draws in lines of perfect grace. 
I do not mean to minimize the value of those 
whom the apostle declared were "living epistles" 
(thank God! there are myriads of saints who do 
show forth the likeness of their Lord) but to 
emphasize the truth that no man can be more 
than an imperfect copy of his Christ. No man 
should look at inconsistent Christians who can 
look at an incomparable Christ. 

The invitation to come meant to hear his words. 
They are not many. You could read them all in 
thirty minutes. You can put the entire record of 
his life as given by Mark, on the front page of 
the Sunday newspaper. His words— hear them. 
You will discover why they said "Never man 
spake like this man." He dropped his thought 
upon the transient air, and as men breathed it 
they became transformed and transfigured. These 
words are like cubes of incandescent moral illu- 
mination. They are dynamic with moral energy. 
He drops them so quietly we almost wonder at 
the commotions they arouse. We marvel at the 


transformations they effect. He himself called 
them leaven — to stir up ferment. He called them 
seeds to bring forth harvests. He called them 
imperishable. Heaven and earth should pass but 
not they. He called them keys of privilege — "if 
any man keep my words, he shall ask what he 
will." They are the ground of our faith, the in- 
spiration of our morality, the stars of our hope, 
and the pledge of our immortality. 

The invitation was to feel his personality. The 
sunshine needs no argument. It is its own dem- 
onstration. Christ is his own demonstration. In 
his presence the confession comes tumultuously 
from the lips of Nathanael — "Rabbi, thou art the 
the Son of God." Henry Drummond says, "No 
man can spend five minutes a day in the com- 
pany of Jesus without the transformation of his 

The invitaticfn meant a call to an experience 
with him. This will hold you steady. Do you 
know why Christians have kept their joy, their 
faith, their hope, their song, while the scholars 
have excitedly debated whether Genesis was his- 
tory, myth, folk lore, poetry? Do you know why 
it has not seemed to matter whether the Penta- 
teuch was written in the time of Moses or in the 
time of Josiah? Do you know why Christians 
have not been worried greatly over the author- 
ship of Isaiah or the historicity of the book of 

Because they have made acquaintance with 


Jesus Christ; because nothing can ever erase 
from memory what he did for them in the hour 
when they gave themselves to his guidance and 
his care; because the most real things and the 
most satisfying experiences of their lives have 
flowed from their association with him; because 
by daily fellowship they had knowledge of him 
utterly independent of written word, and debates 
of authorship, and problems of science, and 
philosophy, and the methods by which worlds 
were made. What compare all evidences besides 
the evidence of a spiritual fact which has become 
the supreme significance of life ! They have been 
steadied in the moment of calamity, they have 
been comforted in the hour of sorrow, they have 
been made brave in the hour of danger, they have 
been exalted in spirit at the expectation of death 
by the gracious ministry of the spirit of Christ 
which has come to be their spirit, and the con- 
sciousness of this spiritual possession has been 
a perpetual victory and a continual joy. They 
know that life has been vastly different since the 
day they came with full purpose of heart to follow 
Christ. Sorrow, toil, pleasure, ideal, hope, moral 
character, all have had a glow and warmth and 


General Secretary, Methodist Temperance 
Society, Topeka, Kansas 

Clarence True Wilson was born in Milton, 
Delaware, on April 12, 1872, and received his 
education in Washington Academy, Princess 
Anne, Maryland, and Wilmington Conference 
Academy of Dover, Delaware. At the age of six- 
teen, during all his spare time, he was in a law- 
yer's office and studied Blackstone and Kent's 
commentaries. Soon after this he was converted 
and felt himself called to the ministry. A few 
nights after his conversion he was invited to 
speak in his church before a crowded audience. 
A revival started, which resulted in the conver- 
sion of many. Being called upon for a similar 
service elsewhere, he was soon in the midst of a 
marked career as a boy preacher. At the age of 
seventeen he entered Saint John's College, Annap- 
olis, Maryland, and served a student charge. At 
eighteen was ordained deacon and at twenty as 
elder. From his eighteenth to his twentieth year 
he served as pastor in the Wilmington and New 
York East Conferences, where he had an emi- 
nently successful career. Since 1909 he has been 
General Secretary of the Methodist Temperance 
Society. He received his B.A. from the University 
of Southern California; Ph.B. from San Joaquin 
Valley College; B.D. from McClay College of 
Theology, and D.D. from Saint John's College, 




"Every one that doeth sin doeth also lawlessness; 
and sin is lawlessness." — 1 John 3. 4 (R. V.). 

"All unrighteousness is sin." — 1 John 5. 17 (R. V.). 

What would life have been without sin? what 
the present state of the earth, if Adam and his 
posterity had remained true to God? What the 
duration of human existence in this world ? What 
the nature of our employments here? What our 
prospective destiny there? Who can tell the 
essential conditions of our probation or describe 
the means of our conveyance to glory, had not 
Satan tempted and had no man sinned? Who 
can fancy what even our poor world might have 
been without sin's defilement and death's destruc- 
tion? None can think of death with any degree 
of terror if you remove its sting; and all know 
that the sting of death is sin. 

What is sin? How did it get here? Why does 
it remain? Are there serious consequences to 
follow its commission? This is not the time to 
discuss the absolute origin of sin. That must re- 
main a sealed mystery. The keenest intellects 
have wrestled with the problem and found no end 
in wandering mazes lost. There are many the- 



ories — metaphysical, dualistic, materialistic; but 
upon these we have not time to dwell. The origin 
of sin in the human race comes within the limits 
of our knowledge, for it is accounted for in the 

The historical character of the earlier chapters 
of Genesis is denied by some ; yet the truth of its 
principles and facts is vouched for by the New 
Testament and by all experience. Man in the 
image of God, a personal being, and placed under 
the law of probation, that he may rise from 
simple innocence to free obedience and positive 
righteousness, sins and falls under condemnation 
and penalty. Thus the poisoned fountain of 
moral evil is opened in the world, and its streams 
are universal in the human race. 

That sin is here no one doubts. As to how it 
came I would rather take the statement of the 
God who knows than the guess of any man. The 
Bible records the facts and gives us the prin- 
ciples. Its first chapters show us man as a copy 
of his Creator. This has relation to his nature 
and in a sense to his character. Take the great 
doctrine of the Trinity, why deny that as impos- 
sible to God, while conscious of the threefold 
nature of man? How clear the Scriptures make 
this matter! They teach that man has a body 
(Greek, soma) ; and a mind (Greek, psyche), 
from which we get our word "psychology" — the 
science which treats of the soul ; but he is a Spirit 
(Greek, pneuma) . How many blunders in biblical 


interpretation are made by failing to recognize 
this threefold nature? Certainly, our resemblance 
to Deity goes this far : as God is a Spirit, man is 
a spirit possessed of intellect, sensibility, and 
will. With such a personality God destined us to 
be free. He gave us the power of volition and the 
law of choice. And the clearest idea of sin is 
found in denning it to be the abuse of moral 

The Christian idea of sin is a theistic concep- 
tion. It includes the idea of God and our re- 
lation to him. It differs in this from all other 
religions. Without the idea of God there can be 
no such thing as sin in the Christian sense. There 
may be the conception of evil, vice, and crime; 
and these enter into the thought of sin, but are 
apart from the idea of God; they do not consti- 
tute it. "Evil" is a generic term expressive of 
conditions which wrong the sentiments of man- 
kind. Vice is the ethical idea of a violation of 
right, and is treated by those who consider public 
morals. Crime is a civil term for an offense 
against the government. But sin is the transgres- 
sion of the known will of God. It may consist of 
a commission, where, by an overt act, a divine law 
is violated, or an omission where a rule of duty 
is neglected. There are sins against one's self 
(Num. 16. 38; Acts 16. 28) and against one's 
fellow creature (Gen. 42. 22; Matt. 18. 21), but 
all sin is primarily an offense against God (Deut. 
20. 18). 


How vividly did Joseph realize this truth! 
Who does not recall with admiration his reply 
to his tempter — "How can I do this great 
wickedness and sin against God?" It was the 
sense of God's presence and relation which over- 
whelmed David with conscious guilt. He had 
committed an awful crime. One wrong Jed to 
another. Falling into deep vice, he realized his 
situation and in deep contrition confessed, 
"Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done 
that which is evil in thy sight." He saw that he 
was separated from God, the soul's Sun, around 
which we were made to revolve in orderly pro- 
cession. No wonder he recognized his unfitness 
to approach the Deity, and cried : "Hide thy face 
from my sin, and blot out my transgression. 
Cast me not away from thy presence and take not 
thy Holy Spirit from me." While it is true that 
God made us free, it is no less true that he had 
a noble purpose for each life. The psalmist in the 
same confession said, "Behold thou desirest truth 
in the inner parts, and in the hidden parts thou 
wilt make me to know wisdom," and declared 
that when cleansed and restored, "Then will I 
teach transgressors thy ways, and sinners shall 
be converted unto thee." Here he shows that the 
divine purpose for each life is first true character 
and then noble service. Every man's life is a 
plan of God with a high aim, but sin is a missing 
of the mark. 

Sin is the act of the intelligent, moral creature. 


Its center and source is the will. As such it is 
an act of selfishness. Ceasing to acknowledge 
God as the central source of love and authority, 
who ought to be obeyed, the sinner becomes him- 
self a center and source of conduct and life. Thus 
the divine order for man's life is broken, and man, 
the sinner, shapes his own ends according to his 
own will. The prodigal son gathered his portion 
together and took his journey into a far coun- 
try, and there wasted his substance with riotous 
living — pure selfishness. Sin is lawlessness, for 
the selfish life means riot, vice, crime, and op- 
position to law. But when the prodigal came to 
himself he returned with correct views of sin and, 
therefore, of repentance: "Father, I have sinned 
against heaven and in thy sight, and am no more 
worthy to be called thy son." This relation of 
sin to God is illustrated by the familiar story of 
the father who took his child, a Sunday school 
boy, on an expedition of theft. When they came 
to their neighbor's fruit tree and were about to 
fill the bag, the thief carefully looked round to 
every point of the compass and put forth his hand 
to pluck the ripened fruit, when the child's voice 
startled him with, "Father, you forgot to look 
up." And it is just this leaving God out of the 
account which constitutes sin. 

There are men with scholastic tendencies, who, 
always getting out of practical problems by ask- 
ing theoretic questions, inquire, "Is sin a reality ?" 
I reply that reality is not limited to entities. All 


reality may be distributed under three categories, 
namely, substance, attributes, and relations. Sin 
is not a substance; it takes nothing from and 
adds nothing to the material of the universe ; nor 
is it an attribute, being rather an act than a 
characteristic of humanity ; yet it is a reality and 
not a mere negative. It sets up a false and wrong 
relation toward God, fellow creature, and self. 
It is a reality, an evil reality of being in a wrong 
attitude toward God, toward nature, and toward 

The Bible always treats of sin as a serious mat- 
ter. It names it, "an offense to God," "trespass," 
an "iniquity," "a transgression," a "want of con- 
formity," "lawlessness," "unrighteousness." As 
to its properties, we are told it is wrong, vile, 
foolish, dangerous, ruinous, exceeding sinful. It 
is illustrated by comparing it to an unfruitful 
vine, an unfaithful steward, ungrateful children, 
harlotry, a "sow wallowing in the mire," a "dog 
returning to his vomit." God gives his warning 
of its end in clear revelations, marvelous retri- 
butions, the mutterings of conscience, the course 
of Providence, some death-bed scenes, and the 
divine character. It is such a real experience that 
God and man must reckon with it. Sin is the act 
of rebellion against the law and love of God. In 
God love and law are one, and our relation to him 
and abhorrence of lawlessness should be such 
that we could not think of despising either his 
government or his heart. 


The true aim of our being is communion with 
God as Father and obedience to God as Sovereign. 
He is the center to which in love and obedience 
we were made to gravitate, and around whom as 
the true orbit of the moral universe we should 
revolve. Saint Augustine said : "O, God, thou 
hast made us for thyself, and our hearts are rest- 
less until they rest in thee." And the poet asserts, 
"Our wills are ours to make them thine." But 
our Father thus complains, "I have nourished and 
brought up children, and they have rebelled 
against me" (Isa. 1. 2). "My people have com- 
mitted two evils: they have forsaken me, the 
fountain of living waters, and hewed them 
out cisterns, broken cisterns, that can hold no 
water" (Jer. 2. 13). Sin is selfish because it 
ignores God; lawless because it rebels against 
him. All unrighteousness is sin, because it sepa- 
rates from God, and ruinous because by it we 
miss the true end for which we were created. 
Such a life is self-destructive. 

Were you ever stung by a bee? It hurt for a 
moment, possibly for an hour; but the bee was 
ruined. It lost its sting and went off to die as 
the result of stinging you. God has so ordered 
it that we can sting him to the very heart, "But 
he that sinneth against me wrongeth his own 
soul," "They that regard lying vanities forsake 
their own mercy." The consequences of sin 
against God are four: 

First, guilt, desert of punishment, exposure to 


penalty. Law is a necessity of things, and pen- 
alty is a necessity of law. Here conscience as- 
serts its functions and power, taking peace from 
the soul and at times slumber from the eyes. 
There is the sense of separation from God, of 
loss and pain. Guilt at its height wrings from 
the soul the cry, "O wretched man that I am! 
who shall deliver me from the body of this death ?" 

It was the confession of Joseph's brethren. 
"We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in 
that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he be- 
sought us, and we would not hear; therefore is 
this distress come upon us." It was this that 
made Felix tremble before Paul's reasoning, and 
suggested to Herod that Jesus might be John the 
Baptist risen from the dead. 

Second, depravity. The entail of sin is a de- 
praved condition of the whole man, that vitiates 
the entire life. It is this that gives such terrible 
effect to what we call habit in the case of those 
who go aside from the path of obedience. I will 
not enter into the difficult doctrine of depravity, 
but whatever it is, sin is the cause. 

There is a special theory of the theologians re- 
specting native depravity called original sin, a 
term first used by Tertullian, one of the Latin 
Fathers in the early years of the third century. 
This theory is of several types. The Augustinian 
says that all men sinned in Adam; the Federal 
declares that Adam stood for the race, and so 
the guilt of his sin was imputed to the race. The 


Pelagian, ancient and modern, denies both these, 
and asserts that Adam rendered himself alone 
guilty, and that all men are born pure as Adam 
was before the fall. The truth lies midway be- 
tween these extremes. The theories based on the 
laws of heredity and race solidarity are less stern 
than the first and less loose than the last. No 
one, of course, was guilty of Adam's sin but him- 
self, for guilt cannot be transferred or trans- 
mitted, but all suffer because he sinned. And the 
principles of heredity and solidarity of humanity, 
with which science is now at work, explain and 
bear out such Scriptures as 1 Cor. 15. 22; Rom. 
5. 12. 

Paul, in treating of sin and its consequences, 
certainly accepted the doctrine of race heredity 
and solidarity; yet he never hints at the mon- 
strous teaching that any soul goes to perdition 
through Adam's sin. While it is true that sin 
reigned in death from Adam until Moses, yet sin 
is not imputed where there is no law. Left to it- 
self, the human will tends to sin, and without the 
aid of the Holy Spirit falls into condemnation. 
But there is a great contrast between Adam's 
offense and God's gift of mercy. For if, owing to 
the offense of one man, the whole race died, it is 
still more certain that God's mercy and the gift 
given in his mercy, which found expression in 
the true man, Jesus Christ, were lavished upon 
the whole race (Rom. 5. 15). The real depravity 
to be feared is the kind that is brought on our- 


selves. Our own sins have poisoned our moral 
nature. Every sin adds to the force of a bad 
habit. Heredity has weakened but practice has 
ruined us. 

Third, slavery. Paul's personification of sin as 
a tyrant, whose chains no man can break without 
God's help, is clearly expressed in Romans, first 
to eighth chapters. This gives further and most 
impressive illustration of the power of habit. The 
bondage of sin must be recognized before it can be 
broken. The mission of the spirit is to awaken 
to a consciousness of sin. All forms of religion 
or philanthropy that ignore or touch lightly the 
evil of sin are weak in their power to reach and 
help a needy world. This is the weakness of 
Buddhism, Confucianism, Mohammedanism, and 
the merely ethical cults of our Christianity. Sor- 
row, fate, and natural consequences are all they 
see, but sin is the bitter root whence all this evil 
fruit springs. Guilt, depravity, bondage, death — 
this is the crop of sin's own planting. Read the 
seventh chapter of Romans and see the picture 
of an earnest and honest Pharisee trying to dis- 
entangle himself from these consequences. 

In Brazil there is a common plant which forest 
dwellers call the Metador, or Murderer. Its 
slender stem creeps at first along the ground, but 
no sooner does it meet a vigorous tree than with 
clinging grasp it cleaves to it and climbs it, and 
as it climbs keeps at short intervals sending out 
short arm-like tendrils that embrace the tree. 


As it ascends, these ligatures grow larger and 
clasp tighter. Up it climbs, a hundred feet, or 
two hundred feet if need be, until the last, the 
loftiest, spire is gained and fettered. Then, as if 
in triumph, the parasite shoots a huge flowery 
head above the strangled summit and thence from 
the dead tree's crown scatters its seed to do again 
its work of death. So does sin grow and grip, 
fasten and fetter its hapless victims. It sprung 
up into the garden of delight and has spread 
through the ages since. 

Death is a Result op Sin 

Man was made for immortality. This is im- 
plied in his constitution as personal, in the image 
of God. The purpose of redemption in Christ is 
a complete confirmation of this; soul and body 
shall bear the image of Christ (Phil. 3. 20, 21; 
1 Cor. 15.42). 

Looking at the universality of sin and its ap- 
palling power, Huxley, the great scientist, said, 
"If some friendly comet would fall upon our 
earth, and wipe off man, it would be a blessing." 
But I am old-fashioned enough to believe that 
man was meant for life, and not for death ; that 
had not sin come in, the tree of life meant special 
immunity from death. If man was created for all 
he is capable of being, he was intended for im- 

That the human body is of the animal kingdom 
and subject to the same law of deterioration, 


death and dissolution as other animals cannot be 
denied, but man as man does not belong to the 
animal kingdom (Gen. 2. 7). On visiting a school 
the German emperor asked a child, "How many 
kingdoms are there?" 

"Three: the mineral, the vegetable and the 

"Which one do I belong to ?" 

Said the little girl, "The kingdom of heaven, 
sire." And in the case of man's body there was 
special immunity from death guaranteed in the 
tree of life. His probation ended, there would 
have been a painless transition to a higher state. 
But sin canceled that special immunity in the 
case of all men, and only in Christ is there re- 
covery of the high distinction to which man was 
destined from the first. 



First Church, Seattle, Washington 

A. W- Leonard is the son of Dr. Adna B. 
Leonard who for twenty-four years so efficiently 
served the church as corresponding secretary of 
the Board of Foreign Missions. The subject of 
this sketch received his education in the follow- 
ing institutions: New York University (B.A.) ; 
Drew Theological Seminary (B.D.) ; and Ohio 
Northern University (D.D.). 

Within a few weeks after the signing of the 
Protocol in Porto Rico, he entered the mission 
work of our church under the direction of Dr. 
Frease, of South America, and organized the 
First Methodist Episcopal Church of San Juan 
(English). He also started a church among the 
English-speaking colored people in Puerta de 
Terra just outside San Juan. In 1901 he became 
the pastor of the English-speaking church in 
Rome, Italy, and taught in the Theological School 
of the same place. 

He has served the following appointments: 
Green Village, New Jersey; First Church, San 
Juan, Porto Rico; First Church, Rome, Italy; 
Grace, Church, Pique, Ohio; Central Church, 
Springfield, Ohio; Walnut Hills Church, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio; and is now serving his fifth year as 
pastor of the First Church, Seattle, Washington. 




"Wherefore it behooved him in all things to be made 
like unto his brethren."— Heb. 2. 17. 

Ibbn^us once said that "as Jesus shows God 
to man, so he exhibits man to God." In Jesus 
Christ God is revealed to man and man is revealed 
in Christ. 

The writer of the epistle to the Hebrews says, 
"In all things . . . like unto his brethren." John 
states the same truth (only) in a different way 
when he says, "The Word was made flesh and 
dwelt among us" ; or, better still, "The Word be- 
came flesh and tabernacled among us." "Like 
unto his brethren — made flesh." Wondrous state- 
ment, more wondrous truth. 

"Like unto his brethren." He had a human 
mother. A mother's oldest son was killed in the 
Civil War. The younger children heard stories 
from her lips of his greatness and of his devotion 
to his country. She loved to tell her neighbors 
and her friends of this noble son. More than that, 
it was her custom frequently to gather the 
younger children about her and tell them of the 
noble life their soldier brother had lived. It was 



but natural, it was human. In the same way we 
may think of Mary, the mother of Jesus. She 
was the friend of our Lord's original apostles 
and disciples, and after his crucifixion made her 
home with the apostle John. It is only natural 
to think of her as telling her relatives and friends 
the things which for years she kept secret, "pon- 
dering them in her heart." From her they would 
learn with freshness of meaning how the angel 
came to her at Nazareth and told her that she was 
to have a Son who was to be "great" and that he 
would "be called the Son of the Most High," and 
that he would become the inheritor of the throne 
of his father, David. She would tell how upon 
her the Holy Ghost descended and the "power of 
the Most High overshadowed her," and that her 
Child would be "called Holy, the Son of God." 
And then, there was the story of the shepherds 
who were keeping watch over their flocks by night, 
when they saw the glory of God and heard a 
heavenly messenger tell them that there had been 
born that day "in the city of David, a Saviour 
which is Christ the Lord." A little later they 
heard "a multitude of the heavenly host praising 
God and saying, 'Glory to God in the highest and 
on earth peace, good will toward men.' " She 
would tell them of the wise men, a story already 
very familiar to them, but undoubtedly she re- 
peated it again and again. She would tell how 
they came from the East guided by the light of a 
star, and that when they found her Child wor- 


shiped him as the King of the Jews and offered 
him gifts, "gold, frankincense, and myrrh." Nor 
did she forget to tell them how he might have 
perished with other children under two years of 
age in Bethlehem and its neighborhood, but for 
the warning which Joseph had received from 
God — "Take the young child and his mother and 
flee to Egypt." She would tell how he grew from 
infancy to childhood, and from childhood to 
youth, and also how he grew in favor both with 
God and man. There were also his relatives and 
his two brothers, James and Jude, who became 
his disciples after his resurrection ; and the people 
would remember that he was one of themselves, 
for when he began to teach in the synagogue in 
which he worshiped as a child, they said, "Is not 
this Jesus, and was not his father Joseph?" 

"Like unto his brethren." That is, none of the 
characteristics of "his brethren" were lacking. 
In other words, in Christ Jesus there were present 
all the characteristics of humanity. The apostles 
were convinced that he had flesh and blood like 
their own. He was sensitive to life's pleasures 
and pains. When he was returning with his dis- 
ciples from Bethany, the day after the triumphal 
entry into Jerusalem, the record states that "he 
was hungry." Wearied with his journey, he sat 
on the side of Jacob's Well. In crossing the sea 
of Galilee with his disciples, he slept so soundly 
that the waves of the srtorm-tossed sea did not 
wake him. At the grave of Lazarus he wept. A 


woman, a sinner, washed his feet with her tears, 
and another woman, Mary of Bethany, poured 
precious ointment upon his head and upon his 
feet. The traitor kissed him, nails pierced his 
hands and his feet, the sword pierced his side, and 
after his crucifixion his body was laid in a tomb, 
and Nicodemus and others of his friends brought 
spices to do honor to the body of Jesus, according 
to the custom of the times. "He was made like 
unto his brethren." 

Furthermore, he also had a mind subject to the 
limitations which he himself imposed. Many find 
difficulty at this point. Let it never be forgotten 
that our Lord did not cease to be the Eternal Son 
when he became flesh and dwelt among us. He 
knew the Father as no one else knew him. Al- 
though he possessed extraordinary power, this did 
not obliterate the limitations of his intellectual 
life. Many references to his own words and to 
circumstances in his life stand as proof of this 
statement. For example, "He hungered," and 
"seeing a fig tree afar off having leaves, he came 
if haply he might find anything thereon." He did 
not know that the fig tree was without fruit until 
he came near to it. Concerning his return to this 
world, he himself said, "Of that day and hour, 
knoweth no one, not even the angels of heaven, 
neither the Son, but the Father only." "He was 
made like unto his brethren." In no other way 
could God have revealed himself to man. In be- 
coming flesh, in becoming "like unto his brethren," 


he did not lay aside the essential facts of his 
deity. He simply changed the form of manifesta- 
tion. The Son was always the manifestation of 
the Father. What that manifestation was in the 
past it is impossible to say, for it has not been 
revealed to the finite mind. Of this we are cer- 
tain, however, that he was the Word — the method 
of communication with the Eternal God. What- 
ever the form was, he laid it aside for the purpose 
of redemption and took on a new form of mani- 
festation. It was a form upon which man 
might, look and by which they might come 
to a clearer knowledge of the Eternal God. Could 
we penetrate the mysteries of the Godhead, we 
should see that the Son was the perpetual medium 
of divine expression. 

In becoming flesh he took on a form possible of 
comprehension by man. He passed from the 
heavenly to the earthly, from the infinite to the 
finite. He passed from government to obedience, 
from independent cooperation with the Deity to 
dependent submission to the will of God. It has 
been well said: "Never before the Eternal Word 
became man did God stand among his creatures 
as one of themselves, walk along the planes by 
which they travel, and bear the necessary limita- 
tions of created nature." "It behooved him in all 
things to be made like unto his brethren." 

Being "made like unto his brethren," he was the 
sympathetic Man. The world craves sympathy. 
One of the most lonely beings in the world is the 


person for whom no one has any sympathy. We 
all crave it. We want those who will sympathize 
with us in our sorrows. We want the touch of 
human sympathy when the experiences of life 
weigh us down and our souls are overwhelmed by 
some unexpected crucial test. In the lonely night 
of sorrow when God takes from us a loved one, or 
a friend proves untrue, or a son or a daughter 
yields to the tinsel attractions of sin, or when a 
fortune is suddenly lost, when sickness comes, or 
other things take place that depress and dis- 
courage us, we reach out for and respond to sym- 
pathy. This is only human, this is but natural. 
He who craves no one's, sympathy in the hard and 
trying experiences of life is abnormal. If, how- 
ever, sympathy is to do us the greatest good, it 
must be real. Not only must it be genuine sym- 
pathy, but if it would count for most, it is neces- 
sary that sympathy shall be expressed by one who 
has himself passed through the same experience 
that we are passing through. 

A friend of mine once told me of an experience 
he had as a pastor. He was calling on a grief - 
stricken mother, whose wayward daughter was 
brought back to the old home dead. The mother's 
heart was not only broken, but the terrific sorrow 
had crushed it, and the woman seemed to be as one 
in a dream. It was a sorrow too deep for tears, 
it was a wound for which there was apparently 
no balm of healing. Friends and pastor had come 
to express their sympathy. Their kind words were 


greatly appreciated. Their tears of sympathy 
did not fall unobserved. From that woman, how- 
ever, there came no sigh, and no tear dimmed her 
eye. There was no convulsion of grief, she sat 
beside her sinful daughter's dead body like a 
statue. While my friend was in the room en- 
deavoring to comfort her, a lady, modest and re- 
fined in appearance and bearing, entered the door 
and was immediately recognized by the grief- 
stricken mother. She at once drew up a chair 
beside her, but said not a word. Neither one 
spoke. In a moment the arm of the new comer 
was affectionately placed around the waist of the 
other. She did not say a word, but she did put 
her face close to the face of the woman whose 
daughter lay dead, and wept. Soon the entire 
bearing of the mother had noticeably changed. 
Gracious tears came and she found almost imme- 
diate relief. The secret of it was that this other 
woman had passed through an identical sorrow, 
and when she entered the room she did not have 
to speak in order to express her sympathy because 
she had passed through the same sad experience. 
She knew, and therefore could sympathize in a 
way which was impossible to others. 

"We have not a High Priest which cannot be 
touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but 
was in all points tempted like as we are, yet with- 
out sin." In these words, the sacred writer tells 
us that sympathy lies at the root of Christ's effi- 
ciency as our Saviour, his ability to succor the 


tempted springs out of his own experience of 
temptation and the conquest of it. Sympathy is 
sometimes the best aid we can receive. To be 
understood and considered, to have appreciation 
and hope spent upon us is more than one half 
the battle. 

Carlyle was at one time strongly tempted to 
give up striving for success in literature. He 
wrote to a friend, "No periodical editor wants 
me; no man will give me money for my work; 
despicablest fears of coming to absolute beggary 
besiege me." His "Sartor" was pronounced by 
one "clotted nonsense," but at this critical junc- 
ture he received a letter from some friend recog- 
nizing its merit and this one voice renewed Car- 
lyle's strength. After receiving the letter Carlyle 
wrote, "One mortal, then, says I am not utterly 
wrong; blessings on him for it." But for this 
concrete expression of sympathy and belief in 
Carlyle, the world might have lost the rich con- 
tributions of this man of genius. 

This is one part of the aid which Christ's sym- 
pathy brings to us. He believes in us. When 
others shake their heads and tell us it is no use to 
try, he speaks to us in our night of despondency 
and discouragement and tells us we may succeed. 
Jesus could not become our Saviour if he did not 
know from personal experience what is involved 
in turning from sin, in restraining the flesh, and 
in forswearing the world. The writer of the 
Epistle to the Hebrews assures us that the sym- 


pathy of Christ is due to the fact that he was 
"tempted in all points like as we are," and that 
he was "made like unto his brethren." 

Before leaving the subject of temptation, let us 
not forget that it is not a sin to be tempted, but 
that sin begins when temptation is cherished, in- 
dulged in, and consented to. Because he was 
made like unto his brethren, our Lord's resistance 
to temptation was a human resistance. He 
achieved his victory by the means which are open 
to all. This makes him a brother to everyone. 

It is a mistake to suppose that the most violent 
temptations are those which appeal to evil pas- 
sions. The strength of temptation depends upon 
the strength of the feelings appealed to. The 
finer the nature, the finer the temptation. There- 
fore, Christ with his sinless human nature suf- 
fered the whole round of temptation exquisitely. 
And he suffered for us. "He was made like unto 
his brethren." 

Jesus is the Race-Man because he has passed 
through all the experiences of life ; because he was 
tempted in all points like as we are; because he 
was made like unto his brethren." The depth and 
fullness of his sympathy leaps all barriers. 
Jowett has observed that we confine our sympathy 
within severe conventional limits. He says: "It 
is often like a lake in a private park, and not like 
the stream which weds together the private park 
and the village green. It is often the dialect of 
the hamlet rather than the speech of the people." 


This is true, and if we stop to think seriously, we 
shall see that most human sympathy is narrow 
and circumscribed. It goes out to relatives, 
friends of a restricted circle, or to the community, 
the commonwealth, or possibly the nation. But 
where is one who carries in his heart the sorrow 
for the world? Where is there one whose sym- 
pathy is big enough to be world inclusive ? Thank 
God, there is one. It is he who "was made like 
unto his brethren," whose sympathy is always at 
flood tide, for the sympathy of Christ knows no 
racial boundaries or limitations. Caste and class 
are carried away in the boundlessness of Christ's 
overflowing sympathy. 

Frederick W. Robertson in one of his most en- 
during and soul-gripping sermons entitled "The 
Human Race Typified by the Man of Sorrows," 
said, in referring to the world-sympathy of Christ, 
that it is implied in his self-chosen title, namely, 
"The Son of man." He calls attention to the two 
aspects in which we may consider the Redeemer 
of the world. We may think of him as Christ or 
we may think of him as the "Son of man." When 
we think of him as the Christ he stands before us 
as God claiming our admiration; but he says: 
"When we think of him in that character in which 
he so loved to describe himself, as the Son of man, 
he stands before us as a type or specimen of the 
whole human race. As if the blood of the whole 
race were in his veins, he calls himself the Son 
of man. There is a universality in the character 


of Christ wLich you find in the character of no 
other man. Translate the words of Christ into 
what country's language you will, he might have 
been the offspring of that country. Date them 
by what century of the world you will, they be- 
long to that century as much as to any other. 
There is nothing of nationality about Christ; 
there is nothing of that personal peculiarity which 
we call idiosyncrasy ; there is nothing peculiar to 
any particular age of the world. He was not the 
Asiatic. He was not the European. He was not 
the Jew. He was not the mechanic. He was not 
the aristocrat. He was the Son of man. He is 
the child of every age and every nation. His was 
a life world-wide. His was a heart pulsating with 
the blood of the human race. He claimed for his 
ancestry the collective myriads of mankind. 
Emphatically he was the Son of man." 

Such an one is our human yet divine Lord. Let 
your mind and intellect conceive of the highest 
natural potentialities of the human race and you 
will be compelled to conclude that it could never 
have produced a Jesus Christ. Such as he is 
from above. Long before the ascension there was 
a condescension. He "became flesh" and "dwelt 
among us." He was "made like unto his brethren, 
that he might become a merciful and faithful high 
priest in things pertaining to God, to make pro- 
pitiation for the sins of the people." 


First Church, Everett, Washington 

The subject of this sketch was born May 23, 
1857, near Sewickley, a suburb of Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. He was educated at Darlington 
Academy, in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. 
Afterward he graduated from Allegheny College 
at Meadville, Pennsylvania, in 1882, and later 
pursued a postgraduate course in history and 
philosophy, receiving the degree of Ph.D. in 1893. 
Carleton College bestowed upon him the hon- 
orary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

He entered the Saint Louis Conference in 
March, 1883, and retained his membership therein 
for eleven years. In September, 1894, Bishop 
Joyce transferred him to the Puget Sound Con- 
ference and stationed him at First Church, Ta- 
coma, Washington. After five years' pastorate 
he was transferred to Pittsburgh Conference, 
where he served five years and then returned to 
Puget Sound Conference. In September, 1908, 
he was appointed superintendent of Seattle Dis- 
trict, and after having served it the full legal 
term, was assigned to the pastorate of the First 
Church, Everett, Washington, in September, 
1914. He was elected as delegate to the General 
Conference of 1912 and is a member of the Freed- 
men's Aid, and Home and Foreign Missionary 



"Hereby we do know that we know him." — 1 John 2. 3. 

The First Epistle of John was written with one 
purpose, that they who "believe on the name of 
the Son of God may know that they have eternal 
life." In it the apostle becomes, by preeminence, 
the preacher of certainty in religious experience; 
of a reasonable confidence in Christian life, faith, 
and knowledge. It is not infallibility in judg- 
ment and opinion he preaches, but that the facts 
of Christian experience and consciousness are re- 
liable, sure, and satisfactory to the person passing 
through them. He proclaims the high privilege of 
a life upon earth to be delivered from doubts and 
fears as to being in a condition of acceptability 
with God, of a mind satisfied by its own con- 
sciousness of a work of grace preparing it for the 
society and enjoyment of God and the redeemed. 

It is to this theme of Christian experience we 
now direct our attention. Webster thus defines 
experience: "Practical acquaintance with any 
matter by personal observation or trial of it, or 
the like." While it may thus have a use in rela- 
tion to external objects, in religious life, it is a 



word applied to the states of the soul, the inner 
works of divine grace, and our consciousness of 
these facts. Here it has reference to every feeling 
of need, temptation, danger, and weakness in re- 
gard to sin, and a knowledge of all our acts of 
will, and of divine help by which these evil con- 
ditions are remedied and a new life of faith and 
purity is made to ensue, grow, and continue. In 
regard to things outside of ourselves experience 
results from experiment, but in regard to internal 
facts experience results from consciousness. Re- 
ligious experience is nearly always of the latter 

There is such a thing as religious experience. 
Christianity is experimental as well as practical ; 
its effects are a matter of consciousness more than 
they are of observation ; it begins its work within 
before it is seen by men, and therefore in its be- 
ginning it is almost wholly a matter of experience. 
The Bible emphasizes the experimental character 
of Christianity. "The Spirit itself beareth witness 
with our spirit, that we are the children of God" 
(Rom. 8. 16). "Our rejoicing is this, the testi- 
mony of our conscience, that in simplicity and 
godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by 
the grace of God, we have had our conversation 
in the world" (2 Cor. 1. 12). "Hereby we know 
that we dwell in him, . . . because he hath given 
us of his Spirit" (1 John 4. 13) . "Hereby we know 
that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath 
given us" (1 John 3. 24). Thus, in addition to 


their reasonableness and the possibility of their 
scientific demonstration, our Christian hopes may 
be fortified by Christian experience. 

Millions of honest, reliable, and intelligent men 
and women assert they have spiritual experiences 
of definite works of grace in their souls which are 
like inner fountains to their lives and conduct. 
They understand what an experience means, they 
are capable of judging of their own states of mind 
and soul, and their testimony is in .harmony with 
their uniform character of truthfulness. In ad- 
dition to this the results from these professed ex- 
periences are just such as we might reasonably 
expect to see if they were real, and their lives 
have just such effect upon us as we might expect 
from men having such experiences. If the ex- 
periences were not real, or were not Christian and 
saving, some person or persons passing through 
them could suggest a reasonable or probable ex- 
planation of their character; but the testimony is 
universal as to their reality and genuineness, as 
well as to their Christian, moral, and helpful char- 
acter. Such testimony so thoroughly agreeing 
with the Bible, must be infallibly true; Chris- 
tianity must be experimental, it must be a matter 
of consciousness as well as of belief and observa- 

Spiritual experiences cannot be explained to 
those outside the circle of those experiences. They 
are only perfectly intelligible to those who pass 
through them. Indeed, this is true of all experi- 


ence. Pain is not learned by definition, but by 
feeling it. If there were a heart never thrilled by 
love it would be as incapable of understanding the 
principle as a savage raised in equatorial Africa 
would be incapable of understanding what we 
mean by an iceberg. Experience is its own in- 
terpreter, and life is the only medium of com- 
munication. In his lectures on "Christian Ex- 
perience" Bishop Foster uses these words : "I was 
never so impressed with this fact and its im- 
portance as during the preparation of these lec- 
tures. Certain passages of Scripture have come 
to have an emphasis of meaning which I had not 
before discovered in them. 'The natural man re- 
ceiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for 
they are foolishness unto him: neither can he 
know them, for they are spiritually discerned.' 
'It is given unto you to know the mysteries of the 
kingdom of heaven, but to them [that are with- 
out] it is not given.' 'Except a man be born again 
he cannot see the kingdom of God.' The import of 
which is, spiritual experiences cannot be appre- 
hended by unspiritualized minds. To speak of 
them to such is to speak in a practically unknown 
tongue. The spiritual man lives in a world of 
spiritual things which to him is perfectly plain, 
but which is wholly foreign to the unspiritualized 

As in all other lines of life, there are varieties 
and degrees of experience, so is it in Christian 
experience. There is almost infinite difference be- 


tween the experiences of conviction and of recon- 
ciliation to God. Equally true is the difference 
between faith and love, forgiveness and sanctifi- 
cation; each experience has its own distinct, un- 
varying character. There is also difference in 
degree. We realize that our faith is mightier at 
some times than others; our zeal varies in ar- 
dency; perfect love may put God absolutely on 
the throne, and lay everything at his feet, and 
yet it is more productive of joy and delight at 
some times than others. Even perfect, or trium- 
phant, faith will have more glory in it at some 
times than others, will have more extensive and 
luminous views of God, of his power, mercy, and 
glory, and of the beauty and holiness of his king- 
dom. There will be a consciousness of variation 
in the naturalness of humility, of an interest in 
the salvation of men, of delight in the word of God 
and the means of grace, of tenderness of feeling 
and sympathy, of power in prayer; yet none of 
the graces are ever absent from the devoted Chris- 
tian. It is only a variation of intensity. It is 
like the light at dawn or eventime or on a cloudy 
day ; it is not so clear, yet there is light with the 
assurance that we will have full light after awhile. 
These variations need bring no fear or anxiety, 
for we are to "walk by faith and not by sight." 
Usually they are the result of physical and 
earthly conditions, and will occur without any 
moral or religious failing upon our part, and 
without any lack of divine blessing. 


One experience may beget another; indeed, 
there may be a succession of numerous experi- 
ences, one growing out of another. In this sense 
there are primary and secondary experiences. 
For instance, the experience of pardon is primary, 
the resulting emotion of joy is secondary. Both 
are real experiences, but the joy and emotion 
could not come without the experience of pardon. 
As the floodgate must be opened before the mill 
race can be filled, and the mill race must be filled 
before the water wheel can turn, and the water 
wheel must turn before the machinery can be put 
in motion, so conviction must precede repentance, 
repentance must precede conversion, and conver- 
sion must precede a useful religious life. Each of 
these experiences is in a sense secondary to its 
predecessor, for after repentance the other ex- 
periences follow as religious necessities, yet each 
may produce resulting emotions and effects which 
are in the best sense secondary. The primary are 
complete in themselves, the secondary are not 
necessary to them, yet the primary are necessary 
to the secondary. So then conviction, repentance, 
conversion, and the Christian life resulting are 
primary, they are the necessary transforming 
facts of experience. 

The great question now comes up, What is 
matter of experience in Christian life? It must 
suffice here to simply enumerate the facts. There 
are seven facts of experience necessary to the be- 
ginning of a Christian life : 1. Divine illumination, 


or a knowledge of sin and holiness which God im- 
presses upon the conscience of man. 2. Convic- 
tion, or the personal knowledge of being a sinner 
and under condemnation. 3. Invitation, a desire 
for and a consciousness that we ought to take 
up a holy life and that God calls us to such a life. 
4. Repentance, or a godly sorrow for sin and a 
forsaking of the same. 5. Faith. 6. Regeneration. 
7. Adoption, or a consciousness that God accepts 
us to be his children. Of course these are not all 
the facts of experience, for many will follow 
these; every divine blessing, every act of faith, 
love, or consecration and sacrifice, growth and 
sanctification, will be matter of experience, and 
they all belong to the Christian life, which is a 
conscious life — a life which we are conscious of 
as being Christian, however much it may be modi- 
fied by our varying faithfulness. These seven 
enumerated facts are preliminary and necessary 
to all that may succeed ; there is no Christian life, 
no growth, no sanctification, without them. The 
succeeding blessings may be more or less numer- 
ous, and more or less satisfactory, but they can- 
not exist or come unless these precede. These 
make the approach, and the golden gate that ad- 
mit us to the temple; these are the beginning of 

Is experience reliable as a basis of Christian 
hope? In other words, are the experiences of the 
human soul facts, and is our consciousness a suffi- 
cient witness? Is this the highest type of knowl- 


edge? Dare we rest content with it? Is it cer- 
tain, unfailing, sure? 

First. All consider experience the most reliable 
knowledge. Even in the sense of experiment, ex- 
perience has been the best source of science and 
civilization ; but in the sense of consciousness men 
have seldom been inclined to call their experiences 
into question. They are the bases of human ac- 
tion. On the one hand, love builds homes, creates 
friendships, founds nations, makes philanthropists, 
inspires heroes, and brightens the roughest human 
characters as the rainbow does the storm-cloud. 
On the other hand, hate begets misery, war, 
cruelty, murder, and withers the life of the hater. 
Both are real, both are mighty, both are experi- 
ences in the souls of those under their influence. 
No person denies their reality. While other ex- 
periences may not be so decisive and clear to all, I 
apprehend there would be no dispute as to their 
being facts; the only question liable to be raised 
would be as to their interpretation. If we deny 
consciousness, then we deny all reality; and few 
would dare go so far in their assertions, and none 
in their practical conduct. 

Second. What we acquire by consciousness and 
experience we know we are certain about. In the 
language of our text, "We know that we know 
it." It is knowledge about which we do not raise 
questions. The element of probability is sup- 
planted by absolute certainty. The facts of ex- 
perience are the only absolute certainties in our 


lives. If a man may not trust these, then he dare 
not believe he is alive; everything is an illusion. 
Who dare take the responsibility of such a con- 
clusion against the universal judgment of man- 

Yet we may very properly disagree as to the 
conclusions or deductions drawn from our ex- 
periences. They are real, yet we may be mistaken 
as to their character or meaning. Knowledge is 
necessary to interpret their meaning. For in- 
stance, if we want to determine when our experi- 
ences are Christian, we must understand what 
end it works before we can come to a proper con- 
clusion — we must understand what is matter of 
Christian experience. We are still men, and are 
sure to have experiences common or possible to 
men who are not Christians. It often happens 
that some consider dreams, trances, faints, 
ecstasies, and emotions to be Christian, whereas 
they are quite common to men of all nations, 
times, and characters, and have been excited by 
every sort of cause, delusions as well as realities. 
They may be a secondary experience connected 
with a real Christian experience, but they are not 
necessarily Christian, and may be dangerous and 
lead us astray. 

Third. In the third place, a fact is the same 
in the experience of all men passing through it, 
and it is the same with every repetition to an in- 
dividual. That is, they all know it to be the same 
fact, to possess the same characteristics. Repeti- 


tion may increase our faith but it does not change 
the fact. Anything that appears different at dif- 
ferent times and to different individuals cannot 
be an object of complete experience. It is only 
partially known, it lies partly beyond the range of 
consciousness, it belongs to the world of mystery, 
which touches us so often in a faint man- 
ner at many points and from which we re- 
ceive so many dim glints of light, yet without 
satisfaction. A real fact must be essentially the 
same with every repetition, and must be essen- 
tially the same to all men having the experience. 
What there may be outside the world of our con- 
sciousness we do not know; we wonder at the 
faint light we get, but we must depend upon and 
live by what we do know and what we can know. 

Now, in order to determine when an experience 
is Christian we have certain tests which we can 
apply. Such tests do not prove that the experi- 
ence is not true; they only settle the question 
whether it is a Christian experience, whether it is 
a result of the operation of some law of the Chris- 
tian religion, whether it accomplishes the aim of 

1. The experience must produce a moral effect. 
All Christianity has an ethical aim, and complete 
holiness is its goal. This tendency is so natural 
that the Bible calls it the "fruit of the Spirit" 
( Gal. 5. 22, 23 ) . It informs us emphatically that 
the opposite, unrighteousness, shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God (1 Cor. 6. 9, 10). This is 


generally observed, in that those who profess a 
Christian experience are morally affected in their 
motives and conduct. 

2. The experience must be biblical. That is, 
it must be in harmony with the teachings of the 
Scriptures, and the result of some act therein de- 
scribed or commanded as a Christian act, and 
produce a result of like character. Not all that is 
called Christian is so, and this is as true in con- 
sciousness as it is in conduct. 

3. It must have power to abide, to become a 
permanent force in character. I do not mean that 
we must always feel the same way, but the con- 
sciousness of a certain fact abiding in our char- 
acter, molding, directing, and inspiring it must 
be present with us. When a sense of forgiveness 
is gone it is time to do over the works of repent- 
ance. While it is true we can lose the experience, 
yet it is also true that it is not a Christian ex- 
perience unless it can abide as long as we meet 
the conditions that brought it. This brings us 
back again to the idea of a primary, or essential, 
experience, and a secondary or nonessential ex- 
perience. Of the last sort are all emotions, ner- 
vousness, trances, visions, fainting, jerks, and 
other phenomena, that are always ephemeral, and 
produce no permanent effect in character unless 
it be fanaticism. These depend much on external 
and physical conditions, which are not essentials 
in spiritual experiences. 

4. Such an experience produces a Christliness 


of character. This effect will become constantly 
more prominent; "He is the way, the truth, the 
life" in the whole matter. "This is life eternal, 
that they might know thee, the only true God, and 
Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." In other 
words, to feel his saving power and be trans- 
formed into his likeness, "being changed into the 
same image, from glory to glory, even as by the 
Spirit of the Lord." 

5. All such experiences are a result of the 
will, acting with the divine agencies. This is a 
never-failing test. There is no Christian trans- 
formation of character, no divine blessing of any 
sort, given to man unless it is preceded by some 
act of volition on the part of the recipient. Others 
may be accidental, but Christian experiences never 
are. Conviction, repentance, faith, forgiveness, 
regeneration, consecration, growth, sanctiflcation, 
all are preceded by a definite act of will ; they are 
deliberately and intentionally sought. The will 
does not create them; it only assists the divine 
agencies; it opens the door for the experience to 
enter. God always respects man's freedom of 
choice ; to violate the will means to destroy man's 
character as a moral agent, and Christian experi- 
ence and character would no longer be a possi- 
bility. So these experiences are free and volun- 
tary ; we may admit or exclude them at will. 

Now let us summarize. Christianity is a mat- 
ter of experience as well as practice; millions 
attest the fact; they find joy and comfort in it 


and are transformed by it. While we need to be 
guarded against supposing an ordinary physical 
or emotional excitement to be a Christian experi- 
ence, yet we can rely upon the facts of spiritual 
consciousness; we know that they are true, abso- 
lutely so. We have sufficient light to interpret 
the facts of Christian consciousness and not con- 
found them with anything merely sensational or 
physical. They become thus not only an evidence 
of Christianity, but a high privilege of every 
Christian, an element which gives to life certainty 
and joy, the glory of which can make luminous 
the darkest days and sweeten the bitterest sor- 
rows of life. This is the distinctive privilege of 
Christian life — "We know that we know." Yes, 
thank God, we "know in whom we have believed." 
We are "persuaded, that neither death, nor life, 
nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor things to come, nor height, 
nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able 
to separate us from the love of God, which is in 
Christ Jesus the Lord." "For we know that if 
our earthly house of this tabernacle were dis- 
solved, we have a building of God, an house not 
made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 


President, College of Puget Sound, Tacoma, 


Edward H. Todd is the product of a Methodist 
parsonage and a native of Iowa. His father was 
a member of the Des Moines Conference for 
twenty-two years and died when Edward was 
sixteen years of age. Graduated from Simpson 
College, receiving therefrom the degrees of B.S., 
M.S., and D.D., and the degree of S.T.B. from 
Boston University School of Theology. 

After graduation from Boston, he served pas- 
torates at Oaksdale and Colfax, Washington. He 
was then transferred to the Puget Sound Confer- 
ence and stationed at Montesano and at the same 
time was the financial agent of Goucher Academy. 
After four years of pastorate at Vancouver, 
Washington, and two years at the Epworth 
Church, Tacoma, Washington, he was made the 
corresponding secretary of the University of 
Puget Sound, in which capacity he labored four 
years, rendering a distinct service, the influence 
of which is still felt. He was then called to the 
vice-presidency of Willamette University, and his 
labor there since June, 1910, again proved his 
peculiar fitness in educational work. 

He rendered invaluable assistance in the rais- 
ing of five hundred thousand dollars for the En- 
dowment Fund. After this was accomplished in 
September, 1913, he received and accepted the 
unanimous call to the presidency he now fills 
with conspicuous ability. 



"Sir, we would see Jesus." — John 12. 21. 

The words of our text were spoken by devout 
men who had come to Jerusalem to worship. 
They were intelligent men and from a race which 
was then renowned for its intellectual ambitions 
and accomplishments. Paul stood on Mars' Hill 
later and gave an account of the Christ and his 
doctrines to that people which convinced them 
and did much to spread his gospel. These men 
were convinced that worship was necessary, and 
that Jerusalem was the proper place to worship. 
With all this they were still alert to increase their 
own religious knowledge and worthiness. Upon 
hearing of the marvelous words and works of 
Jesus they were filled with a desire to see him 
for themselves. They would seek the source of 
still further excellence and culture. 

It is proper that this company of students and 
teachers should turn aside from their ordinary 
duties and seek to see the person whom these cul- 
tured men ought to see. We are in the midst of a 

1 Used on Day of Prayer for Colleges, February 11, 1915, at College of 
Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington. 



great company of students to-day who are observ- 
ing this Day of Prayer. Besides this, ours is a 
Christian foundation by Christian men. It would 
be proper had we not any further reason than to 
respect our founders' ideals. But these are not 
the real reason we give for this cause in our 
studies. This day is observed, and our founders 
have established this school, because there is a 
deep and abiding religious demand that must be 
met in the soul of every man. There is a hunger 
and thirst in every soul which must be satisfied 
if that soul is to reach its highest development. 
The religious nature must be cultured as well as 
the intellectual. Perfected culture of the soul 
requires that the affections be directed upward 
and outward by religious instruction and train- 
ing. Symmetry and beauty of character are to 
be gained by a development of all the powers of 
the soul to function easily and supplementarily. 
Every man is by nature religious and ought to 
seek in developing this part of his soul's power. 
We are not saying that a man is naturally saved 
from his sins, nor that, he is naturally Christian. 
Both of these are attainments through the power 
of the soul to function religiously laying hold of 
the Saviour through faith. Instinctively men 
pray, and they ought to strive to cultivate that in- 
stinct. In my youth I was tempted to think that 
it was an admission of weakness to confess that 
I was a Christian. I trust that the youth of to- 
day are above that temptation. There is another 


temptation which comes later and which is just 
as subtle. Men to-day seem to take religion as a 
thing apart from everyday life. It is something 
professional, and preachers are professional men 
in the sense that they have a profession to prac- 
tice even as a lawyer or a doctor. This is not so. 
Religion is a universal attribute of man. With- 
out religious culture one fails to attain to perfect 
culture. The last words are strong and perhaps 
may be taken as those of a special pleader. Hear 
what one who is not connected with Christian 
education has to say about this matter: "No per- 
son is educated whose religious nature is not de- 
veloped. The religious impulses require instruc- 
tion and training." "No human life is effective 
up to the limits of its possibilities that is not in- 
spired and directed by religious motives." These 
are the words of Professor C. E. Rugh, of the 
University of California, one who is regarded 
highly by educators of the Pacific Coast. It was 
for this attainment and by this impulse these 
Greeks were moved to say, "We would see Jesus." 
Religious development is not the knowledge of 
certain religious formulas, or the knowledge of 
certain religious facts or the practice of certain 
religious acts as such. These may be and prob- 
ably are quite essential in training and express- 
ing religious instincts, but the soul must take 
color and character; it must acquire a certain 
fiber to really be religiously cultivated. Re- 
ligious training must therefore reach and culti- 


vate the affections, giving them strength and direc- 
tion. Religion must appeal to these affections be- 
cause they are the soil from which the nature 
receives its richest nourishment. There are some 
who think of any appeal to the affections as an 
appeal to the exercise of the most evanescent of 
all men's powers. "Now abideth . . . love" is not 
a figure of speech. When men want to inspire 
their fellows to deeds of physical valor it is usu- 
ally by an appeal to the love of truth, or home, 
or country. A proud, yet strong youth, does not 
make his plea before a court of one declaring his 
strength of body and of intellect but his affec- 
tions to win a favorable decision. The other 
qualities are but accessories in the case in point. 
All the higher attainments depend upon this 
power. When love controls worldly rulers, be 
they princes or peoples, wars will cease and not 

It was my privilege to ride on the "boot" with 
the driver of an old-fashioned stage over a moun- 
tain road in early spring, if riding thus could be 
called a privilege. The privilege was in meeting 
the man. He entertained me with stories of his 
exploits in which he had quelled riots in saloons 
and at other times had started them. At last he 
told me of an encounter with his sixteen-year-old 
daughter who had defied the authority of her 
mother. With tears streaming down his face he 
told me of his love and pleadings with her and 
his conquest of his child. All at once he turned 


and said, "Excuse me, sir, for my weakness." But 
in that story of love he revealed his power over 
men. He had a big heart of love and sympathy 
through which he swayed men. 

One definition of God given by John is, "God 
is love." Is it not noteworthy that he did not 
say, "He is intellect," or "He is will," or "He is 
beautiful" ? These are all left to be inferred. The 
conquering Christ, who was God incarnate, has 
given the world the rule of love by which to live 
and conquer. Certainly, the one who made the 
world and expects to hold himself accountable for 
its outcome, will reveal his greatest power to be 
used by his emissaries in accomplishing his pur- 
pose. Instruction and training lead one outside 
of himself to find the material for that instruc- 
tion. The great truths of science lead one to con- 
template the works of his hands. The attainment 
of knowledge of them makes for culture. The 
effort to discover new truths makes for skill in 
functionings of the soul. Then let us follow the 
guidance of scientific method and search outside 
of self, for that which will furnish instruction and 
training for this religious nature. 

An object as great as the physical truths — yes, 
greater — is necessary for religious development. 
Listen to Christ. He says, "Love." This has been 
what I have been trying to say, "Love the Lord 
thy God with all thy being." God must be the 
object of man's affection if he attains to anything 
like culture of the religious nature. Science takes 


nothing less than his works for the food or the 
intellect, and we must certainly take nothing less 
than him for the food of our affections and re- 
ligious nature. He has loved us and invited us to 
love in return. 

Love so amazing, so divine, 
Demands my soul, my life, my all. 

Perfect culture does not only secure proper 
subjective states but also true subjective rela- 
tions. The Christian religion does not stop with 
getting a man right, for that would be out of 
harmony with the fundamental conditions sur- 
rounding him. Religious development as secured 
by a sight of Jesus must bring perfection of social 
conditions — an avenue for God to reveal himself 
to the world. The soul in its power to perform 
its functional possibilities must have something 
worthy of its effort. Just to function property is 
not enough. There must be an objective life as 
well as an objective source for the training and 
the culture of that life. Man to receive must give 
forth. John again defines God in these words: 
"God is light." I do not think that the apostle 
could take an examination in light in these days. 
But he knew enough about the nature of light to 
know that it was a proper symbol of God's na- 
ture. It expressed the attitude of God toward 
his universe and the intelligences which he had 
produced. He is sending out from himself and 
constantly love, thought, power, strength He 


does not ask what the profit or immediate return 
will be. His gift may be absorbed and hidden 
away until remote ages have come, but he does not 
cease. His effort is but to send another ray of 
light following the one which has been seized and 
entombed. His gift may be transformed into an- 
other life, but he ceases not from giving. Perfect 
culture will likewise send forth all that it pos- 
sesses toward its fellow intelligences. All the 
functioning powers are to be used to send forth 
a stream of helpfulness all the time, to every one, 
who comes within their radius. And that radius 
is not bounded by any narrow limits of space or 
time. It is measured only by the strength of 
one's personality. This same Jesus whom these 
Greeks sought to see has given instruction at this 
point. He gave, "Love thy neighbor as thyself" 
as the second great commandment. It may be 
said it is the second great foundation stone in the 
character of God, and the second foundation stone 
for the human race. When love dominates the 
functioning of the soul it provides the fluxing 
medium which will make it possible for one to 
obey this great command for the proper ethicajt 
relations among men. Is there darkness in the 
nation or the individual? It is the Christian's, 
duty and should be his pleasure to send forth that 
which will dispel the darkness, destroy the 
shadow, replacing them with light, peace, joy, and 
beauty. Not to minister to the mind alone, but 
to the heart as well, alleviating every condition 


that brings sorrow and sadness, lifting up the 
fallen, cheering the faint, and leading those who 
grope in blindness. In the quietness of this hour 
search your own soul and you will find there 
earnest longings after God. In the presence of 
that need look outward and upward seeking the 
source of satisfaction, instruction, and develop- 
ment. There is such a source. God has provided 
for every need, and he has not slighted this the 
deepest need of a man's soul. He has revealed 
himself in Christ that men might find him easily. 
Are you dead? There is reaction. Are you weak 
and unable to rise? His hand is extended. 

The same Jesus which had filled all Jerusalem 
with wonder with his words and his works has 
been doing greater things in these latter times. 
Come, let us seek him together. It will bring the 
profoundest joy to me if we may approach him 
together that I may assist you to become ac- 
quainted with him. His life and his works were 
based upon the two great commandments. In his 
presence and on those same great commandments 
each one of you students will find that which will 
supplement the culture which you have sought 
within these walls. 



Superintendent Wenatchee District, 
Spokane, Washington 

Robert Brumblay was born at Lawrenceburg, 
Indiana, July 9, 1876. He is a lineal descendant 
of Robert Cushman, a commissioner of the Ply- 
mouth colony, and the man who preached the first 
Thanksgiving sermon in the New World. He re- 
ceived his education in Moores Hill College and 
Cincinnati College of Law. In 1899 he was ad- 
mitted to the Indiana Conference and has been 
uninterruptedly engaged in the active ministry 
since that date. In 1907 he was transferred to the 
Columbia River Conference and stationed at 
Waitsburg, Washington, where two pleasant years 
were spent, after which he was sent to Pullman, 
Washington, the seat of Washington State Col- 
lege; and, after having served it successfully for 
four years, he was appointed superintendent of 
the Wenatchee District in 1913. Mr. Brumblay 
has been a frequent contributor to the denomina- 
tional press. He has been active in the Epworth 
League Institutes of the Northwest, having been 
a member of the faculty of the Liberty Lake and 
Redondo Beach Institutes and in the summer of 
1914 was appointed dean of the faculty of the 
Jjake Chelan Institute. 




"And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: 
he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he that 
believeth on me shall never thirst." — John 6. 35. 

Man is a being of many needs. In reality the 
demands which he makes upon the world and life 
about him are multitudinous. First, there is his 
physical life. This calls imperatively for food, 
drink, raiment, and shelter. Not only does he 
require the things necessary for the maintenance 
of his physical life, but countless luxuries and 
comforts as well. 

But man is not merely an animal. He is taller 
than his bodilv stature. Man is a thinker. He 
has been endowed with mind, and so there is the 
intellectual appetite demanding food for its satis- 
faction. The Divine Economist has provided the 
storehouse of truth, and these man may unlock 
and obtain from them that for which his mind 

Closely allied with his thought-life, yet higher 
and deeper, is something in man which we have 
called the soul-life. Made in the image of God, 
man is a living soul. While this soul-life is al- 
most too deep for words to describe, yet it too has 



its needs. These needs are as real and as impera- 
tive as those of the body. Undeniably, the human 
soul has its hunger, its thirst, its longings, and 
its aspirations. These demand satisfaction. Any 
system of religious faith which is adequate must 
be able to respond to the fundamental needs of 
the universal life. It must have adaptation to the 
needs of the individual, and, to the needs of hu- 
man society; in short, before any of its claims 
to supremacy can be recognized it must show that 
it possesses the power to satisfy the heart-hunger 
and quench the soul-thirst of the race. 

There have been, and to-day there are many 
religions. The founder of each one of these has 
maintained that his religion is superior to all 
others, and that finally it will triumph and be ac- 
corded the recognition which it merits deserve. 
When we sweep our gaze over the field of com- 
parative religion, and then for a moment let it 
rest on each of the warring faiths ; when we con- 
sider the fact that of the total population of the 
globe, estimated at about one billion five hundred 
million, more than one half, or one billion and 
forty million, are marshaled under the stand- 
ards of non-Christian religion, and only four 
hundred and sixty million march under the cross ; 
when we reflect that if it were to be decided to- 
day by the choice of the world, who is entitled to 
primacy as a teacher of religion and what system 
of religious faith is the really inspired and su- 
preme revelation, that three hundred and forty 


million would say Buddha, that one hundred and 
fifty million would clamor for Brahma, that one 
hundred and sixty million would declare for Mo- 
hammed and the Koran, while over two hundred 
million swear their superstitious allegiance to 
some form or other of fetishism or paganism — I 
repeat that when the human mind reflects upon 
these facts, it is not so inexplicable, after all, 
that in some quarters the finality of the Christian 
religion is questioned. 

Is Christianity merely one among a group of 
religions, each claiming superiority for itself, or 
is it really, as its followers affirm, the only true 
and final religion? Is Christ actually "the 
Light of the world," the Supreme Teacher and 
Divine Saviour, or is he simply one of a company 
of illustrious founders of religions, among whom 
are Zoroaster, Confucius, Buddha, and Moham- 
med? Will Christianity have its day, gain its 
triumphs, mold its civilization, then become de- 
cadent, and finally be eclipsed by a rival faith, 
even as it has itself overshadowed many others? 

These are the questions, among many like them, 
which are frequently being propounded. Often 
they are asked by a weak and trembling faith; 
sometimes by an honest mind on the road to 
truth; but more often have they been hurled by 
the enemies of the cross as a challenge into the 
faces of the adherents of Christianity. 

To discuss a subject involving questions of this 
nature with any degree of clearness means that 


some propositions must be denned. At the outset 
let it be understood that not all of the non- 
Christian religions are wholly bad. On the con- 
trary, there is in most of them much that is noble, 
good, and elevating. It is far better for a China- 
man to be a Confucianist than nothing. The 
morals of a devout Brahman are infinitely su- 
perior to those of a Hindu who becomes a slave 
to his baser passions. Unquestionably, Moham- 
medanism has exercised a restraint over the fierce 
tribes of the desert, imperfect though that re- 
straint has been. 

The outstanding weakness, which the strongest 
of the heathen religions betray, is that they are 
only partly adapted to meet the needs of the in- 
dividual soul and the needs of organized life. 
They touch some sides of life, but they do not 
touch all. They are local, provincial, or national, 
not universal. The cause of this is that every 
one of the non-Christian religions is man-made. 
Some of them were invented by men of lofty minds 
and noble character, but being men, the religions 
which they founded partake of the limitations of 

Unlike these religions, Christianity was born 
in the heart of God. In it we find law of mutual 
adjustment in perfect operation. Christianity 
was made for man, and man for Christianity. 
No religion has been invented which can com- 
pare with it in its capacity to respond to the deep 
and universal needs of the human soul. What 


one of the profoundest thinkers in the American 
pulpit has said is true — "Christianity is the key 
which fits the lock of the human soul." One was 
made for the other, and the creator of both is the 
Infinite God. 

What are some of those distinctive qualities of 
the Christian revelation which give it this incom- 
parable adaptability to the primary needs of the 
universal mind and heart? Casting the question 
into a different form, let us ask: "What is the 
power of this faith founded and promulgated by 
the Christ of Nazareth to meet every demand upon 
it by an earnest, seeking soul ?" 

First. Christianity gives man the clearest and 
best conception of God. Among all the world's 
religions none can compare with it in this re- 
spect. Not that Christianity stands alone in 
affirming the existence of the Divine Being. Mo- 
hammedanism does that. From their very child- 
hood the devotees of Islam are taught, "There is 
but one God, and Mohammed is his prophet." But 
how vastly different is the God of the Koran and 
the God revealed by the Christ of Galilee! To 
the most pious Moslem God is little more than an 
impersonal Being, at best, no more than an awful 
Sovereign, harsh and forbidding in his attributes, 
and a Being only to be worshiped and feared. 

For ages the human soul groped in darkness 
in its quest for God. It cannot be doubted that 
in no age has God left himself without a witness. 
Yet how long the human soul sought him in the 


dim gray of the early morning of revelation ! In 
every period of the world's history there have 
lived the Enochs, the Samuels, the Ezekiels, and 
the Isaiahs — the lofty souls, seers and dreamers, 
who caught and held their vision of God; but 
untold millions, like Job of old in his agony of 
desperation, have cried, "O, that I knew where 
I might find him!" 

When you review the theological thought of 
the world, outside of the teachings of some of 
the great Hebrew prophets, prior to the advent 
of Jesus, you find yourself inside a theological 
museum, which strongly suggests an anthropo- 
logical museum. Along the sides of the wall are 
rows of mummies. Expose them to the living air 
for an instant, and they would crumble into dust. 
Here and there in this strange collection are stone 
implements — axes, arrow-heads, war-clubs, and 
odd charms of the astrologer and the medicine 
man. As crude and imperfect as these have been 
some of the conceptions of God born in the minds 
of men in the centuries past and gone. Many 
associated their idea of God with the elemental 
forces of nature. God was in the storm, the earth- 
quake, or in great calamities, such as plagues, or 
terrible wars. To others God was nothing more 
than a Great Architect, who having planned and 
constructed the world, had retired from it. Still 
others, no doubt, conceived God to be a Great 
Mechanic, who with his hammer and forge had 
wrought the universe, winding the springs in its 


mechanism, and having wound them, flung the key 
away, leaving the vast machine to run itself. To 
many minds God was nothing but an abstraction 
— an impersonal force, the God of pantheism. 

But when Christ lived upon the earth how all 
of that was changed ! In the life and teaching of 
Jesus the world found that perfect and satisfying 
revelation of God for which it had yearned so 
long. To the heart of man was disclosed the 
beautiful truth that God was not only Ruler but 
Father. Other religionists had applied the term 
"father" to their deities, but it was reserved for 
Jesus to teach the world to say: "Our Father 
which art in heaven." Not only did he teach the 
world to say it, but also to feel it. 

To Philip the Master uttered a profound truth, 
"He that hath seen me hath seen the Father." 
As Dr. George Jackson has written: "There is 
nothing that he said or did that does not declare 
Him whom no man hath seen at any time. To 
read that 'old sweet story' is to put our hand on 
the heart of God; it is to know the Father." 
Many souls have been entranced by the life of 
tenderness, purity, love, and power lived by the 
strong, immortal Son of God. From that life 
they have grasped the truth that what Jesus was 
for thirty and three years God was through all 
the ages. Jesus not only made God understand- 
able by bringing him within the range of the hu- 
man mind, but he also brought the Infinite within 
the realm of the human affections. 


Second. Of all the religions of the world, Chris- 
tianity gives to man the most inspiring valuation 
of self-hood. No religious teacher has ever given 
us such a fine appraisal of the worth of a man 
as has Jesus of Nazareth. He shot human life 
through and through with dignity and sacred- 
ness. The enthusiasm of Jesus for humanity was 
tremendous. Its influence upon the progress of 
mankind cannot be overestimated. 

Any religion that expects to grip the mind and 
heart of the race must furnish room enough for 
both man and God. By this we do not mean that 
man is to be considered the equal of God. But 
for his highest effort and noblest achievements 
man must feel the impact of the inspiring incen- 
tive that he is a fellow laborer with God — a co- 
worker with the Divine. All of the heathen 
religions paralyze the energies and ambitions of 
men because they lack this stimulating quality 
of Christianity. Mohammedanism throws the 
blight of fatalism on human life. By it man is 
taught that he is being hurried on irresistibly by 
fate. He is merely a creature handled by blind 
forces. Struggle though he may, he cannot alter 
his destiny. In the light of the teaching of the 
other great non-Christian systems, the individual, 
relatively, counts for little. He is the sport of 
tyrants. He is little more than a worm to be 
crushed under the iron heel of despotism. Chris- 
tianity, on the contrary, puts the emphasis on the 
worth of the individual. It is not too much to 


say that Christ put his finger on manhood and 
capitalized it. Heredity and environment are 
agencies that are not scoffed at in the teachings 
of Christianity, instead they are reckoned as 
powerful; but, notwithstanding, these influences 
are considered subordinate to the sovereignty of 
the inner life. This teaching of Christ of the 
worth of the common man has done more to pro- 
mote the growth of pure democracy than any other 
given to the world. Jesus waved the golden rule 
over slave market and palace alike. He posted 
an angel sentry beside the crib of every sleeping 
babe, whether born of a peasant woman or an em- 
press. The vassal and his bride took the same 
vows at the marriage altar as the lord and the 
lady of gentle birth, while over the graves of 
monarchs and subjects alike were pronounced the 
assuring words, "I am the resurrection and the 

A short time ago while traveling one night be- 
tween Seattle and Spokane on a Great Northern 
Railway train, I was reading a book on a re- 
ligious subject. By accident the volume slipped 
from my fingers and fell into the center of the 
aisle of the car. A young man of rather intelli- 
gent appearance, who was sitting just opposite to 
me, stooped and picked up the book. Before re- 
turning it to me he hastily glanced at the title 
and the opening page. As he handed the book to 
me he asked with a tone of cynicism in his voice : 
"What is the use, sir, for you to waste your time 


reading a book on the Christian religion. Isn't it 
plain to you that Christianity is a failure? What 
a fine sight the world has to-day of the two 
strongest so-called Christian nations of Europe 
leading in a bloody war against each other! As 
for me, I don't want any better proof, that Chris- 
tianity has played out." After a few moments of 
silence he asked, "What do you think about it?" 
Having thus been asked for my opinion I replied 
to him that it was very deplorable that England 
and Germany were locked in a desperate and 
bloody struggle, supposed Christian nations as 
they have been, but that instead of Christianity 
being chargeable with the war, the thing respon- 
sible was an utter absence of Christianity. And 
that, I am ready now to submit, is true. Not the 
standards of Christianity but the brutalizing 
standards of materialism must be held responsible 
for the European war of 1914. 

If the rulers and subjects of these warring na- 
tions had marched up to the heights where the 
Son of God planted the flag of the sacredness of 
human life; if they had only caught a vision of 
the sublime doctrine of "The Fatherhood of God, 
and the brotherhood of man" as proclaimed by 
Him whose feet once touched the far-off hills of 
Galilee; if instead of nursing race hatred, and 
fostering a narrow nationalism, under the guise 
of "patriotism" ; if, instead of this, they had been 
thinking and acting in the terms of brotherhood 
and international unity, as did Jesus, this curse 


and scourge of slaughter would never have fallen 
upon them. The world will yet yearn as never 
before for the dawn of the golden age of peace, 
and at last it will discover that in the hand of 
Christianity is the golden key that will unlock 
the gates of the better day. 

Third. Christianity satisfies the needs of the 
human heart, as does no other religion, because 
it provides a remedy for sin. The sense of con- 
demnation is universal. Men everywhere have 
sought release from the burdens of an accusing 
conscience. Every altar that has been erected, 
every sacrifice that has been offered, every prayer 
of confession that has been made, bear witness to 
this fact. When the guilty soul sees itself it cries 
for peace. What can still this tempest in the 
soul? What medicine can allay this fever raging 
in the breast? There is little or nothing in the 
non-Christian religions affording relief to the 
soul oppressed with this consciousness of sin. 
The best Buddhism can do for it is extinction. 
To be absorbed by Nirvana is the only escape 
from the sufferings of this world. None of the 
great heathen religions recognizes the fact of sin. 
Christianity recognizes it as a tragic, lurid, uni- 
versal fact. 

At the great Convention of Methodist Men, held 
in Indianapolis in October, 1913, Mr. Fred B. 
Smith related a telling incident. He told how he 
rode north of Calcutta with Professor Boesch, 
who in 1893 was a representative of Hinduism at 


the World's Parliament of Religions at Chicago. 
They discussed Hinduism for two days. Mr. Smith 
said he was ashamed to find that the Hindu pro- 
fessor was vastly more familiar with the Bible 
than he. Said Mr. Smith in relating the occur- 
rence : "He got me again and again by references 
to our Bible, and he insisted that I should read 
those great passages from the hymns of the Vedas, 
and he would say, 'Have you anything more beau- 
tiful in your Bible?' I read to him the Sermon 
on the Mount, and when I went through the Beati- 
tudes he did confess that he did think they had 
nothing in their literature that could surpass 
them; but he believed that somehow they 
must have been dug up in ancient Hindu- 
ism, and I was at my wits' end. I finally said 
to him, 'Suppose some man in Hinduism is 
taken in sin and goes- down in awful passion to 
the bottom — what has Hinduism for him?' He 
said with an expression of surprise, 'O, Mr. Smith, 
Hinduism does not pretend to cure sin.' I then 
said to him, 'Professor, you have not any religion 
at all ; Christianity proposes to cure sin.' " 

Yes, Christianity not only proposes to cure sin, 
but it does cure sin. God's program of forgiveness 
and reconciliation through the atoning ministry 
of Jesus Christ comes to the rescue of the soul. 

There is no name so sweet on earth, 

No name so sweet in heaven, 
The name before his wondrous birth 

To Christ the Saviour given. 


The greatest gift of Christianity to the world 
is a Eedeemer. The voice of Jesus can be heard 
across the stretches of human life, and when he 
speaks his voice breathes a music as sweet as the 
notes of a lute, yet clear and strong as a silver 
trumpet: "Come unto me, all ye that are weary 
and heavy laden, and I will give you rest." 

In this scheme of individual regeneration, offered 
alone by the unique and supernatural Christ, is 
also found the world's hope of social reconstruc- 
tion. Here, again, is shown the adequacy of 
Christianity, and its power to satisfy the deepest 
needs of the individual and of society. 

Fourth. The human soul in its normal state 
asks for an assurance of personal immortality. 
This the faith of Christianity gives to men. It 
cannot be said fairly that the best of the heathen 
religions deny immortality. They may deny it, 
but they do not affirm it. Materialism says, 
"Death ends all." Agnosticism declares "that it 
does not know." Confucianism says, "We are not 
concerned about the future." The noblest of the 
heathen religions venture, "I hope for a destiny." 
These are the verdicts of the non-Christian world. 

But what has Christ to say. Listen. Like 
the tones of a great, glorious, golden bell, his sub- 
lime declaration sweeps across the ages — "Be- 
cause I live, ye shall live also." The most mo- 
mentous question of the ages is that which the 
human soul has asked itself : "Shall I live again ?" 
Christ has answered it. The good and noble of all 


centuries have felt the stirrings, the instincts of 
immortality. Christ confirms these hopes of the 
human heart. It is difficult to persuade the hu- 
man race to dig its own grave with the spade of 
materialism. Science says force is indestructible, 
and the greatest force in the universe is the hu- 
man soul. 

Then there is what some poet-soul has called 
"the pathos of incompleteness." How often the 
loom of earthly life, on which we are weaving the 
web, is broken, and the pattern remains un- 
finished ! Shall we not in a glad and radiant for- 
ever be permitted to gather up the broken threads 
and finish the task? Are all the loves, and 
dreams, and unfinished achievements of the hu- 
man mind and soul to be blotted out forever by 
the hand of death? At the thought there rises 
in the soul a bitter cry of protest. The human 
heart longs, after life's brief fitful day, for the 
eternal companionships, the reunited, never- 
ending loves. Christianity gives this hope. In 
the voice of positive authority, Christ banishes 
Death from the dominions of Life. The keynote 
of the Christian faith is life — life here and life 
yonder. It tells us we are not to live here to pre- 
pare to die, but we are to live here to prepare to 
live forever. 

They have not perished — no! 

Kind words, remembered voices once so sweet, 
Smiles, radiant long ago, 

And features, the great sours apparent seat; 


All shall come back, each tie 

Of pure affection shall be knit again; 
Alone shall Evil die, 

And Sorrow dwell a prisoner in thy reign. 

Standing one day on the shores of that inland 
sea, whose waters go out to meet the great Pacific, 
I turned my face toward the east, that I might 
catch a view of that mighty mountain, Rainier. 
Clouds of vapor were drifting across the range 
that morning, and at first my gaze was not re- 
warded. But, little by little the clouds lifted, 
disclosing one by one the lower mountains. Then 
the higher peaks began to show themselves. The 
climax came when the last fold of the curtain was 
drawn aside, and there standing in its indescriba- 
ble grandeur, the kingliest of them all was great 
Rainier. And so it will be with the Christian 
religion. It is the loftiest and noblest of the 
religions of earth. It is the supreme, the final 

After while, when God's truth has cleared the 
world's atmosphere, Christianity will tower above 
all human systems. It will endure forever. Let 
not fearful souls think it will be supplanted. It 
will outlive all other religions of the world be- 
cause it most fully satisfies the deepest needs of 
the soul of man. 


Superintendent The Dalles District, Kenne- 
wick, Washington 

Harold O. Perry was born in Iowa in 1878, but 
was reared in the State of Nebraska. He attended 
the Nebraska Wesleyan University for three years, 
lacking only few credits for graduation when for 
health reasons he was forced to seek a new cli- 
mate, and went to Montana, immediately joining 
the Montana Conference. In 1904 was trans- 
ferred to the Columbia River Conference, serving 
pastorates at Waterville, Washington, 1904-1907; 
Sunnyside, Washington, 1907-1911, when he was 
appointed to the superintendency of The Dalles 
District by Bishop Smith. The district under his 
able leadership has had a substantial growth. In 
1913 the College of Puget Sound conferred upon 
him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 




"And Elisha prayed, and said, Jehovah, I pray thee, 
open his eyes, that he may see. And Jehovah opened 
the eyes of the young man; and he saw: and, behold, 
the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire 
round about Elisha." — 2 Kings 6. 17. 

The king of Syria was warring against the king 
of Israel. At different times the heathen king 
had thought that his opponent was trapped, but 
always the king of Israel discovered the plan, 
until Syria's king was very much annoyed and 
decided that there was a spy in the camp. To 
his advisers he said, "Will ye not show me which 
of us is for the king of Israel ?" Their reply was, 
"There is no spy in Syria but there is a prophet 
in Israel, called Elisha, who telleth the king of 
Israel the words which thou speakest in thy bed 
chamber." Then said the king of Syria, "Find 
out where he is, that we may send and fetch him." 

It was found that Elisha and his servant were 
in Dothan, in the hills of Samaria, and the king 
sent "thither horses, and chariots, and a great 
host; and they came by night and compassed the 
city about." 



When Elisha and his servant awoke in the 
morning, and found this great host gathered 
around the city for the express purpose of taking 
them, the servant was greatly frightened, and thus 
addressed Elisha: "Alas, my master! how shall 
we do?" And then comes the text — "And Elisha 
prayed, and said, Jehovah, I pray thee, open his 
eyes, that he may see. And Jehovah opened the 
eyes of the young man ; and he saw : and, behold, 
the mountain was full of horses and chariots of 
fire round about Elisha." 

One of the encouraging signs of to-day is that 
bald materialism has no longer a strong influence. 
Thinking people have discovered that the materi- 
alist has a task so gigantic that almost in the 
very beginning he must abandon his foundation 
and begin over. People in general recognize that 
the spiritual must be taken into account, or our 
problem will be hopeless. It makes little differ- 
ence what question is to be considered, spiritual 
forces must be reckoned with. The man who 
undertakes a business enterprise may figure out 
that all the material resources and advantages 
are such that he is bound to succeed: yet how 
often has there been complete failure under these 
very circumstances! The same may be said of 
any undertaking. The way a matter looks as a 
man ordinarily reasons may not determine how 
it really is at all. The man who goes forth to act 
upon the world's stage must remember that there 
is an unseen world of spiritual forces with which 


he must be allied if he makes his life a success. 
This principle has been recognized and observed 
through the centuries by all great men of God. 
A few pertinent illustrations will help to make 
clear the point. 

In Midian there was a man by the name of 
Moses, a foreigner whom God had kept in this 
strange land for forty years for no other pur- 
pose than to teach him humility. He learned his 
lesson and the lesson that God lives ; and one day, 
as he walked by the roadside, there appeared a 
burning bush, which burned and yet was not con- 
sumed. He said to himself, "I will turn aside 
and see what this is." There is many a man so 
material in his conceptions that he would fail to 
see this burning bush. In fact, there are to-day 
burning bushes everywhere. The spiritually- 
minded have discovered them and profited greatly 
thereby, while the materialist goes heedlessly on 
in his sensuality. 

When God saw that Moses turned aside he 
spoke to him thus: "Moses, Moses, put off thy 
shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon 
thou standest is holy ground. I am the God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. 
I have surely seen the affliction of my people 
which are in Egypt, and have heard their cry by 
reason of their taskmasters. Come now therefore, 
and I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou 
mayest bring forth my people the children of 
Israel out of Egypt." 


Moses .was spiritual enough to see the burning 
bush but did not yet realize that God's power 
could be his. His answer follows: 

"Who am I, that I should go unto Pharaoh, 
and bring forth the children of Israel out of 

And God said, "Certainly I will be with you." 

"But," said Moses, "When I shall say unto them, 
The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you ; 
and they shall say unto me, What is his name? 
what shall I say unto them?" 

Tell them "I AM hath sent you." 

"But," insisted Moses, "behold they will not 
believe me nor hearken unto my voice." 

Then God demonstrated to him that he would 
give him power to show signs of the unseen world 
and convince them. 

Moses said, "I am slow of speech and of a slow 

But this diffident man, who thought himself 
unable to do anything worth while, was finally 
persuaded to link his life with God's and he be- 
came not only Moses the deliverer, but Moses the 
general, Moses the judge, and the greatest law- 
giver of Old Testament history. Had he only used 
the forces which are all prevailing with the world, 
he would have been always a shepherd in the hills 
of Midian. 

Again the point is well illustrated by the con- 
duct of the three Hebrew children, Shadrach, Me- 
shach, and Abednego. 


Said Nebuchadnezzar, the heathen king, "Every 
one must fall down and worship the golden 

Said the three Hebrew captives, "As the world 
knows about things, you have the power to de- 
stroy us in the burning fiery furnace, but if it be 
so, our God is able to deliver us : anyway, we will 
not worship your golden image." 

The king's wrath was aroused; the furnace 
heated seven times as hot as common, or per- 
fectly hot, and these three men cast in, is the 
ghastly scene which we face. 

But as the king looks, he is astonished and ex- 
claims: "Did not we cast three men bound into 
the midst of the fire? Lo, I see four men loose, 
walking in the midst of the fire and they have no 
hurt ; and the aspect of the fourth is like a son of 
the gods." 

And has it not been true in all ages that men 
and women have walked through the burning 
fiery furnace of affliction, without a hair of their 
heads being singed. And always there was an 
Unseen One with them. We would not be com- 
pelled to go far to find many such cases to-day. 
Let the materialist account for the results of the 
Eevolutionary War. As the materialists see 
things, everything was against the colonists. 
They had no navy. They were few in numbers. 
In winter quarters at Valley Forge they left the 
blood stains upon the snow because they were in- 
adequately shod. They were without money or 


influence, ragged and half-starved. One of the 
greatest nations with superb equipment, was 
pitted against them. How was it done? Because 
the forces of the unseen world assisted them ; be- 
cause eternal right was on their side. 

Abraham Lincoln saw the end of the Civil War ; 
and why? Because he was a true prophet linked 
with God's unseen forces, and this being true, he 
knew that the war could end in only one way, 
even though that way might not be apparent at 
the time. 

The scene of Jesus feeding the five thousand is 
a scene for modern times. After Jesus asked the 
blessing he began to break the loaves and pass 
them out, and lo! they multiplied until all were 
fed. We should not forget to have God's blessing 
upon the undertaking, and then we need not 
worry even if our material resources are not all 
that we could have desired, or that might seem 

I have had members of official boards figure out 
to me that certain things were not practical and 
actually prove their contention. And yet some 
of those very things were undertaken because they 
seemed to be a necessity, and the figures did not 
hold good at all. When we want to do anything 
in the church we are apt to say, "Mr. A. will do 
so much, and Mr. B. will do so much," and when 
we have it all counted up and we find that it lacks 
the needed amount, we declare, "It's no use; we 
cannot get enough. In God's figuring whatever 


ought to be done can be done. Many an achieve- 
ment can never be explained in any other way 
than by the assumption that the unseen Host as- 
sisted. The Bible is full of this kind of thing, 
hence the materialist cannot understand the 
Bible, nor appreciate it. 

"Now the natural man receiveth not the things 
of the Spirit of God : for they are foolishness unto 
him ; and he cannot know them, because they are 
spiritually judged." 

Often church members are, practically, materi- 
alists. They trust in forms and ceremonies. To 
them the initiative rite of baptism saves, the 
sacrament snatches them from the burning. But 
no church member is a power in his church or 
community until he has learned that salvation is 
not mechanical and that the source of all power 
is the unseen God. 

How deeply conscious was the apostle Paul of 
this ! Reared in an atmosphere of formalism, his 
great nature could not be satisfied with just the 
shell. He first met the unseen world as a real 
and vital force on the way to Damascus. He 
never forgot that day. And from that day noth- 
ing could deter him from his duty, even though 
discouragement was everywhere. 

From the world's standpoint, there could be 
no more hopeless task than winning Asia Minor 
and Greece for Christ. Raw heathenism and base 
depravity were everywhere. There came but little 
response at first, and tremendous opposition. 


Left outside the gates of one of the towns for 
dead, after the people had stoned him, deserted by 
John Mark, Paul had reason to be discouraged 
and say that it was not worth while; but he was 
linked with the unseen world, and that made a 
difference. He aimed to go to Ephesus, the com- 
mercial metropolis, but he was not permitted to 
do so, and so he preached in the smaller towns. 
Cyprus, Perga, Antioch, Lystra, Iconium, Thes- 
salonica, Corinth, and Athens — he visited them all 
and literally beat back the tides of heathenism. 
Paul alone could never have done this ; but linked 
with Christ, he tells us that he could do "all 

Let us think of the text for a time. The servant 
of Elisha was greatly frightened, but Elisha ap- 
pears to have been perfectly calm. His prayer 
is a model of brevity and force. Why did this 
vision come to the young man? for it was un- 
doubtedly not for Elisha, and we are not sure 
that Elisha even -saw it. It could not have been 
that the horses and chariots of fire were for com- 
bat, as will be seen by reading on. They were 
not for Elisha, as he needed nothing of this kind 
to make him fearless. They were to show the 
young man that God and one man are a majority. 
Elisha knew it before. It has always been true 
that all the soul needs is to be on God's side. 
"Some trust in horses, and some in chariots, but 
we will trust in the Lord God." Strange as it 
may seem, the unseen forces of God please the 


man of strong faith more than those forces which 
are all prevailing with the world. This man be- 
lieves the right will prevail and has no fear of 
consequences when contending and standing for 
the right. 

Early in my ministry I learned something along 
these lines which has been with me through the 
years. I was appointed to a mission church with 
only a few members. It was the only Protestant 
church in a town of six hundred population. 
Railroad construction was on, and there were 
fourteen saloons in the town. One of my men in 
the church was a leader, holding several im- 
portant offices, and I had often thought that we 
would be helpless without him. One day he in- 
formed me that he would soon leave. My first 
impulse was that I might just as .well leave; but 
there came the assurance that God was with us, 
and that his work could not be stopped or even 
hindered by one man. As I learned to look at it, 
it was a good thing for the church that he left. 
A one-man church is a poor affair anyway. The 
church was stimulated, the preacher came to rely 
more upon God, and the work of the Kingdom 
moved forward better than before. 

The resources of God are never wanting for the 
accomplishing of God's work; there never has 
been a time that God has failed to provide for 
the needs of the world even in a material sense. 
Man's extremity is God's opportunity, and the 
need is greater faith in God and less in man. 


Our forefathers hovered over fires of wood on 
the Atlantic coast, little dreaming that under- 
neath them were hidden stores of coal which 
would be taken out of the bowels of the earth as 
needed for the increasing population. Westward 
the population moved and increased and always 
new stores of coal were discovered. Though we 
have ninety millions of people, there is coal in 
abundance, with thousands of acres more in 
Alaska to be developed, when the politicians are 
through quarreling over it. And if the coal 
should all be exhausted, there are the oil wells; 
and if they should cease, then I remember that 
God is constantly lifting the moisture from ocean 
and lake, congealing it and dropping it upon the 
mountain sides, then kissing it with his sunshine 
till it melts and develops power moving toward 
the valley; and if all the water power of the 
Northwest were captured, there would be enough 
to heat and illuminate every house and turn all 
the wheels of commerce. 

They tell us that after a while all the hills will 
be denuded and there will be no lumber; but 
Edison says "then we will build concrete houses 
more cheaply than frame houses, and better." 
God's resources are sufficient even in a material 

The same is doubly true in the spiritual sense. 
No moral or spiritual emergency is so great that 
God's resources are not abundant for all needs. 
The statesman need not fear to do right. The 


business man is safe in being true to himself, his 
neighbor, and his God. And it may be safely 
said to any man when he is in trouble or in fear, 
"The mountains are full of horses and chariots 
of fire." 


First Church, Spokane, Washington 

Francis Burgette Short was born in the State 
of Delaware December 20, 1868. His parents, 
Isaac Burton and Julia Ann Short, were leaders 
in the religious thought and activity of their com- 
munity. Their home was the stopping place for 
the "presiding elder" and the "circuit preacher." 
The subject of this sketch graduated from the 
Wilmington Conference Academy in 1889 and 
from Delaware College in 1891. The honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by the College of Puget Sound in 1913. He 
has served conspicuous pastorates in the Wil- 
mington Conference at Harrison Street and Ep- 
worth Churches, Wilmington, Delaware. He has 
also had successful pastorates at First Church, 
Portland, Oregon; First Church, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, and he is now pastor of the First Church, 
Spokane, Washington, where his influence is felt 
in the politic, civic, business, and religious move- 
ments of the city. 




"And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for 
God took him."— Gen. 5. 24. 

The biography of good folks is always inter- 
esting and inspiring; it stimulates the mind, 
quickens the moral sensibilities, and pushes 
farther back the horizon of life, that keener eyes 
may glimpse the far-away but oncoming events. 
Every epoch of history has had its moral heroes, 
who have made glorious the times in which they 
have lived and conspicuous the things for which 
they have stood — those moral Gibraltars out there 
in the seas of human passion and storm. The 
Bible is the book of unbiased biographies, and as 
such it gives itself entirely over to the task of 
character revealment, presenting to us its varied 
characters who are seen in their proper moral gar- 
ments, and in the activities in which they were 
both interested and engaged. I want with as 
much clearness as possible, to present one of these 
characters to you this morning. 

The compendium of facts of Enoch's life are 
few: He was born. He lived. He went back to 
God. Great facts these. Wonderful is the fact 



of having a life to live right here on the earth 
among folks, with burdens to carry and oppor- 
tunities for serving. Glorious is the fact that 
one may so faithfully carry life's burdens and re- 
spond to its opportunities that the way back to 
God and heaven may be found. "Enoch walked 
with God" — blessed privilege ! — "and he was not" ; 
his earthly sojourn was ended, "for God took him" 
— glorious consummation ! Read that text slowly. 
It is as heartful and tender as ever fell from a 
pure mother's lips as she looked into the laugh- 
ing eyes of her own sweet child. "And Enoch 
walked with God: and he was not; for God took 
him." The whole world loves the short story of 
Brother Enoch's life because the whole world has 
seen his life duplicated in its every community. 
We have all seen and know Brother Enoch; and 
we love him too. 

Character is assertive ; it cannot be suppressed ; 
it must speak in the voice, flash in the eye, throb 
in the hand-grasp, and pour itself out upon the 
generation in which it lives. Some characters, 
like some plants, are ever and always poisonous 
and destructive, while other characters, like other 
plants, are ever and always life-giving. Brother 
Enoch belonged to the latter class; he was of 
heroic mold and a choice spirit; he faced the 
issues of life, as they came to him, bravely, and 
won for himself the brilliant place which he ever 
holds in the sky of God's moral universe because 
"he walked with God." 


Life demands and seeks companionship. The 
very fundamental of soul growth and human hap- 
piness was expressed, when God said, "It is not 
good for man to be alone." God wanted his ideal 
creation to develop, to grow, to be happy. Com- 
panionship is a necessity for growth and for hap- 
piness. God never intended that good folks 
should withdraw themselves from the crowded 
thoroughfares. Here is where they should be. 
The hermit may become a cold storage of facts 
and philosophies, but he will never be the center 
of life-giving impulses and inspirations, so long 
as he remains a hermit. Facts are good and neces- 
sary, but the soul cannot live and grow upon mere 
facts any more than a hard-working man can get 
fat eating dry shredded- wheat biscuits. The soul 
must have facts that have in them the warmth 
and the inspiration which holy companionship 
assures; and the busy world, out there, requires 
just the tonic which really good folks bring to it. 
And the greatest asset of this community and 
every community is its possession of some Brother 
Enoch to warm and cheer and lead on its hosts 
along the highway to God and heaven. 

The importance of companionship becomes more 
and more evident. The lack of the proper com- 
panionship is the large factor in the establish- 
ment of our juvenile courts and penal institu- 
tions. The general thought of the prison is that 
it is a place for the punishment of wrongdoers. 
This seems to be a necessity both for the criminal 


and society, and the average criminal, after serv- 
ing his term, is released and returned to society 
with the same character, possibly worse than 
when he entered the prison. There is a sense in 
which his imprisonment has been a failure. The 
State owes it to society to punish the criminal 
and it also owes it to society to return the once 
criminal back to society a much better man than 
when it placed him in its institution. The State 
should make some effort to so befriend its crimi- 
nal class while serving sentence that they may be 
inspired with better motives and higher ideals of 
life and this idea has taken root and is being 
practiced in some of our penal institutions with 
marked success. 

But why this youth before the kindly disposed 
juvenile court? Somewhere behind all somebody 
has failed to furnish the proper companionship. 
Who was it? I cannot answer that perplexing 
question. It might have been an unsolicitous or 
unwise parent; it might have been some un- 
guarded preacher; it might have been some indis- 
creet teacher; it might have been some so-called 
friend. But O the tragedy of these improp- 
erly companioned lives! What shadows they 
throw across their homes ! What grave responsi- 
bilities they throw upon society ! O, holy task of 
the church to inspire communities to bring to 
bear upon these young lives the influences they 
need, the influences of men and women who walk 
with God ! 


Brother Enoch walked with God — he pursued 
the religious life ; he gave himself seriously to the 
work in hand ; he rose superior to the forces that 
dominated in his community; he contended for 
the faith of Israel, and just how well he suc- 
ceeded the text makes known. We must not fail 
to recognize that environment affects character. 
Enoch was sixty-five years old before he began to 
walk with God. Nor must we forget that God 
working through the will and the soul enables 
one to rise above his environment. We all have 
knowledge of saintly souls who defied their he- 
redity, environment, early associates, and limita- 
tion of opportunities ; we have seen some of them 
rise to places of honor, power, and Christian in- 
fluence simply and solely because they compa- 
nied with those who walked with God until 
they too learned to recognize and to love his com- 

Brother Enoch and God had a common interest 
and objective in life. These bound them together, 
and they walked along the highway in the same 
direction until God took Enoch unto himself. 
This common interest is necessary to hold men to- 
gether. Political interests bind them into parties. 
Patriotic interests establish nations. A common 
interest is expressed in our church life and de- 
nominational endeavors. A common interest 
sometimes brings together spirits that seem far 
removed from each other and unites them in the 
deepest experiences and holiest joys. A common 


interest may prove a blessing or a curse, and you 
need to exercise the greatest care in trying to dis- 
cover the character of the interests which bind 
you and your companions together. Does the 
common interest benefit you? Does it bless your 
companion? Enoch and God were a blessing to 
each other. 

Young friend, listen ! You need the companion- 
ship of God. The pathway of life is so uncertain 
and rough, its experiences are so changeable and 
its burdens are so heavy. To-day is fair and the 
sea is calm, but you may run into a terrible storm 
ere the next sun rises. You need God to cling to, 
and you need God to cling to you. Disappoint- 
ment may one day sweep down upon your life and 
sink its claws into your vitals. You need to be 
able to hear the "Fear not" of God. Sorrow will 
some day empty its bottles into your heart and 
you will cry, "What shall I do ?" You need to be 
able to hear, "Come unto me, and I will give you 
rest." You need God's companionship, and God 
wants your companionship, and I very much 
doubt if he will ever be fully satisfied until you 
and he are walking together toward the same ob- 
jective, urged on by the same common interest. 
The things God liked Brother Enoch also liked. 
The things God wanted Brother Enoch wanted 
too; they were bound together by a common in- 

What made the Mayflower sail? The common 
interests of its occupants. What compacted the 


thirteen original colonies? Their common in- 
terest. What builds our churches? What deter- 
mines our denominations? What overleaps de- 
nominational walls ? The common interest which 
we have and hold and cherish for the cause for 
which Christ died. And by this interest express- 
ing itself as Christ would have it there shall be 
perfected a brotherhood precious beyond descrip- 
tion and priceless beyond gold. 

The very phrasing of the text is suggestive. 
Read it again. Note how Enoch was with God 
on that walk. God suggested it and planned it, 
and Enoch went with him. They were going some- 
where. There is no such a place as "Nowhere." 
God and Enoch went somewhere. You are going 
somewhere too. Life means progress, advance- 
ment, growth. Toward some destination we move, 
and most of us are moving with somebody. Where 
are you leading your companions? Toward what 
somewhere are your companions leading you? 
These questions involve the welfare of both your 
friends and you ; hence they are serious questions. 
But you must answer them. They cannot be es- 
caped, though they are heavy with personal re- 
sponsibility. You must answer them both now 
and at the bar of God's judgment. You must 
answer this question just as fairly as did Enoch. 
With whom will you walk? "Choose you this 
day whom you will serve." What will you do 
with Jesus, the Christ? Enoch decided and 
walked with God three hundred years. Nothing 


fickle about Enoch ; nothing spasmodic. Religion 
was the dominant issue in Enoch's life. "He 
walked with God." In this he never hesitated, 
faltered, or failed. 

"And he was not" ; that is, he was missed from 
the community; he was sought but could not be 
found; he had arisen from sight; he was lost to 
both friend and foe. There is nothing strange or 
unnatural about this Scripture, "He was not." 
God's ways are frequently mysterious to us. Of 
course the community missed Brother Enoch. 
Every community misses its good men and good 
women when God takes them home. Enoch's life 
had been luminous and life-giving to the age in 
which he lived for three hundred years; he had 
been the one bright star of its moral firmament; 
he had been the one man about whose life had 
grown in clusters the virtues of the children of 
God. Men looked upon him as the embodiment 
of justice and mercy, the incarnation of righteous- 
ness and truth. His home, yonder, was pointed to 
as the dwelling place of the companion of God, 
and those who drew near his abode felt the in- 
fluence of his holy life environing them. Every 
community knows where its Brother Enochs live, 
and misses them when they are gone, though it 
may be slow to acknowledge their influence. Have 
we not all at some time known and seen Brother 

Back to the days of your childhood and youth, 
let memory return to recall those whose lives 


stood out like blessed beacons along the border 
years of your lives. As their names pass through 
your mind, a thrill of holy joy possesses you. How 
circumspect their activities! How reverential 
their walk and conversation ! With what careful 
deliberation they expressed an opinion! They 
bulked large on the side of right living. Their 
light shone with unmistakable directness and 
luster. Their influence was ever helpful and 
wholesome. They had associated lovingly and 
long with the Companion of Enoch. They had 
caught the luster of the eye of Him who sleepeth 
not. They had learned to put their feet in the 
steps wherein was left the print of the nails. 
They had satisfied their heart's quest and thirst 
with the water that maketh glad the city of our 
God. Sometimes their neighbors thought they 
were narrow and queer, but they never questioned 
their sincerity nor integrity of soul. Have you 
not seen just such Brother Enochs in your com- 
munity? What a blessing they were! When 
some poor family was hungry, Brother Enoch 
carried them food. When somebody was sick, 
Brother Enoch visited him. When some poor soul 
was about to leave the earth, it was Brother 
Enoch's voice, poured out in prayer, that helped 
the dying man to seize the rope of faith and swing 
over into God's side of eternity. 

"He was not; for God took him." The com- 
munity wondered, and neighbors inquired of each 
other, "Have you seen Brother Enoch?" Every- 


body missed him. No one could find him. He 
was the subject of conversation in the village, the 
chief topic of the city. Men wondered how they 
ever would get along without him. "He was not" 
seen around any more. But "he was not" per- 
mitted to see death. Death is not a necessity to 
reach heaven, though "we shall all be changed" 
to meet the new conditions into which we shall 
be taken. However, the thing that should con- 
cern us now is not what about the "change" but 
what about the "walk" with God. Not about the 
end but the way that leads to the end. 

"God took him" back to himself. That cheers 
the toiler along the upward way. "God took 
him." That confirms the soul's declaration of 
itself, "I shall never die." That witnesses to the 
universal belief in immortality. That confirms 
the soul's faith in a place of future habitation. 
"God took him" somewhere. God has a place to 
take those who walk with him. There is a place 
where the weary shall rest, where the victor shall 
be crowned, and where the sun shall not go down. 
I have no theory about heaven, but I most firmly 
believe that God has a "place" that is glorious 
as well as a "condition" that is immortal for 
those that love him. Did not Christ declare, "I 
go to prepare a place for you"? "I will receive 
you unto myself." Certainly, God took Enoch, 
and God delighted to take him because of Enoch's 
fidelity. They were friends and companions, and 
had walked together so long that God would have 


been lonely without Brother Enoch. Heaven was 
more gloriously heaven with him. 

I have seen some of these modern Enochs whose 
lives have made glorious the communities in 
which they lived. There was Brother Atkins, 
who was ignorant of the literature and the activi- 
ties of the world, but he knew God and walked 
with him so winsomely that multitudes of others 
were constrained to join their company. Hickory 
Hill Methodist Episcopal Church, Sussex County, 
Delaware, is to-day largely what it is because this 
modern Brother Enoch lived and walked with 
God in that community. Then there was my own 
dear father, whose walk and conversation in his 
community made him one of the most conspicuous 
of modern Enochs in his own State. For fifty 
years this lay prophet of God gave himself un- 
sparingly to the one supreme task of blazing 
away in the moral firmament, and men saw his 
light and glorified his Father in heaven. Won- 
derful was he in prayer, and powerful in exhorta- 
tion. Many the camp meeting service that was 
brought back to life under his exhortation after 
some of us theologians had tried and failed. 
Isaac B. Short walked with God just as truly 
and willingly as Enoch ever did, and when he 
died the community asked: "Who will now con- 
duct the revival meetings? Who will pray the 
dying sinner up to God's holy hill?" We have 
all known these modern Enochs, these choice 
spirits of the earth, these souls that will make 


heaven glorious. But they are not. God has 
taken them. The loss of earth proves the gain 
of heaven. Brother Enoch is not among us any 
more. God has taken him. 

What have we learned from the study of 
Enoch's life? That religion, one's right relation 
to God and man, should be the chief and serious 
concern of life: 

That the religious life requires companionship 
for its development; that companionship decides 

That companionship is the result of the com- 
mon interest, which is expressed wherever men 
are associated. 

That God plans and points the way, and men 
will ever do well to give his plans a large place 
in their calculations. 

That death is not a physical necessity, though 
a change is required. 

That God is morally bound and also pleased 
to reward those who walk with him in the midst 
of an unholy generation. 

That Christ is the proof of our companionship 
with God. 

That immortality is assured in our Lord Jesus 

That there is a place prepared for those who 
have and enjoy the holy companionships of earth. 

That fidelity shall receive its reward. 

These are some of the lessons that I have 
learned from the study of Brother Enoch's life. 


I've tried to impress these lessons upon your 
minds and hearts, this morning, with the hope 
and the prayer that we may all so walk with God 
here that we shall have his companionship here- 


Waterville, Washington 

Gabriel Sykes was born in Blackley, England, a 
little Yorkshire village, on October 20, 1863. He 
began school and work at the same time when 
eight years of age, working in the factory half of 
each day and attending school under the auspices 
of the National Church of England for the other 
half. At thirteen attendance in day school ceased. 
In 1889 he came to the United States and after 
one year as a supply was admitted on trial in the 
Oregon Conference. In 1901, after years of hard 
study, preaching, and teaching he received his 
B.A. degree from Willamette University. He was 
transferred to the Columbia River Conference in 
1903 and was stationed at Pullman, Washington, 
and after two years' pastorate was appointed su- 
perintendent of Walla Walla District, where he 
served with efficiency for the full term of six 
years. At the conclusion of his term he requested 
an appointment on circuit and his wish was 




"To everything there is a season, and a time to every 
purpose under heaven." — Eccles. 3. 1. 

"Come now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will 
go into this city, and spend a year there, and trade, and 
get gain: whereas ye know not what shall be on the 
morrow. . . . For that ye ought to say, If the Lord 
will, we shall both live, and do this or that." — James 
4. 13-15. 

A friend in my congregation has requested me 
to invite attention to the question of some reason- 
able division of our time whereby we might insure 
an attempt to do each life duty. 

First. The writer of Ecclesiastes takes the po- 
sition, whatever seems necessary to be done in 
this life will find its opportunity : there is a suit- 
able occasion for each transaction. The writer 
of our second text is insisting that life is very 
uncertain, and its length lies not in our keeping 
or knowledge. So he believes that the very im- 
portant thing is to recognize in every plan we 
make the supervision of the Divine, and hence a 
deference to his direction that will show our 
reverence for and our confidence in him. In 
other words, one of these men says, "Life is not 



an aimless affair, although it is made up of a 
multitude of events." The other says, "Life 
affords no place for a haughty independence, nor 
yet for despair!" 

Second. I remember when a schoolboy the 
teacher taught me to define a verb as the word 
in a sentence which expressed being, doing, and 
suffering. This most expressive word in any 
language is the word which comes nearest to de- 
fining the contents of one's life. Put in a few 
qualifications after recognizing each word in this 
definition as a verbal noun and we should not go 
far wrong in trying to tell one another what con- 
stitutes life as we must live it. 

Perhaps we should prefer the word "experience" 
to the word "suffering." Of course the gram- 
marians used it in its large sense of "undergoing 
any sort of experience" — whatever spent itself 
in or upon the person indicated as the subject 
of the sentence. Adopting such a suggestion, it 
becomes quite clear that the being is the founda- 
tion. What I am is going to determine to a great 
extent my activities and my experiences. 

Yet it is quite true that when I get through, 
the activities and experiences will have some- 
what modified what / am. I may remain a white 
man, an American, a man with a tendency to put 
on flesh; phlegmatic in temperament; dne, slow 
to perceive, defective in powers of observation, and 
so forth, but in all directions some modifications 
will have arisen out of the passive and active ex- 


periences through which I have passed. No gen- 
eration is exactly like the one that has preceded 
it. So while being has the start, doing and ex- 
periencing put on the finishing touches, and we 
come back again to being. 

Third. Then I think we shall readily agree that 
the real object of living this life is, the perma- 
nent improvement of ourselves. It may turn out 
finally that life is simply the unfolding of what 
is wrapped up within us. However that may be, 
is it not true that we are here to make the most 
of ourselves? We call ourselves personalities; 
then the one great business in life is to enrich 
these personalities. We know how prone we are 
to endeavor to make life easier for this person- 
ality, to indulge it, to enrich it in circumstances, 
to substitute its environment for itself. But when 
we deeply consider it we must acknowledge to 
ourselves that life has not succeeded unless the 
being has improved. And I think the old theo- 
logian who told our fathers that the whole duty 
of man was to "glorify God and enjoy him for- 
ever" would admit that to seek the full develop- 
ment of God's plan for our lives is to accomplish 
such "glory" and will lead to such "enjoyment." 

Whatever one may think of the length of man's 
existence, one cannot avoid the conclusion that 
everything places emphasis upon its quality. No 
doubt it is fair to say that such insistence upon 
quality is suggestive of something permanent in 
the individual; and, standing where he does in 


the processes of nature, it is not difficult to draw 
the inference that the ultimate reason may be 
found in man's eternal destiny. 

Fourth. When we turn from the individual and 
his make-up to his relationships we are imme- 
diately struck with the immense number of things 
which one must do for others if there is to be 
calm upon life's sea, and, indeed, the large service 
the mature individual must render to the imma- 
ture if the human species shall be simply pre- 
served. So the helplessness of his infancy seems 
to be the foundation of his altruism, as Professor 
Drummond has so eloquently argued in his Ascent 
of Man. He is made for these relationships, and 
they in turn are the school in which he receives 
his education. But this very relation of parent 
and child has also put a keen edge to his selfish- 
ness on occasion. True, he has been anxious to 
care for his children, but in case nature has failed 
to respond to his hunting or industry so as to 
assure enough for both his and the neighbor's 
children, this very care for them has led to bitter 
competition and rivalry between one set of par- 
ents and another. Only gradually has he grouped 
himself into larger circles. Perhaps England and 
Russia afford examples of the largest economic 
groups under one government. Our patriotisms 
seem to be extending. When Christianity has 
really been adopted by the various races of men 
we shall see that nothing but a world-patriotism 
adequately expresses our relationships. 


Fifth. How, then, shall we give appropriate 
attention to the program of life which such a con- 
ception seems to thrust upon us? As a race we 
have developed institutionalism because of the 
complex nature of this life. Institutionalism rep- 
resents, in a sense, a division of labor. The home 
has proven its fundamental necessity; the more 
devoted its members have become to each other's 
interests — the more reciprocal its duties and 
privileges have been conceived to be — the finer 
the influence the home has had upon its members. 
The church has been thrust out of the home be- 
cause of the increasing complications of life. 
Government is another necessary division of life's 
work, whereby man is saved much anxiety. 

Education is seen to be so vast a thing that the 
school has become a branch of the home. Social 
life with its amenities and inspirations has grown 
up and developed its conventionalities, and its 
various methods of indicating sympathy and co- 
operation. Business and industry have grown 
from simple barter into all sorts of organized 
forms. Art and science are the natural expres- 
sion of man opening himself to the vast universe 
in which any branch of industry has gone too far 
when it makes of a man a mere machine; and if 
it shall continue, then we must reduce to a mini- 
mum the hours he shall spend at such a task. We 
cannot afford to rob Darwin, the great human 
soul, of his taste for music and poetry, say, in 
order to produce Darwin the scientist, much as 


we may appreciate him in the latter capacity. 
We often remind ourselves that it is not wealth 
we need so much as well-being. Then none of 
these divisions, not even the home, must be per- 
mitted to consume the person. It is the whole 
being that must finally furnish the expression of 
all that has gone into it, and all that he has been 
able to unfold. A man should seek not merely 
ability to express himself in music, industry, poe- 
try, politics, and so forth, but his possession of a 
nature which serves human ends in all possible 
ways. But while I believe the ends life has in 
view preclude over-specialization, they neverthe- 
less do call for an order of decreasing importance 
on the part of these divisions which a long race 
experience has brought about. 

As I have already suggested, all the divisions 
spring from the home. Hence the home must al- 
ways have the first place. Even one's work or 
occupation, as we call it, should be made as nearly 
as possible to accommodate itself to the needs of 
home. It is one of the sad things of our modern 
industries that they encroach upon our home life. 
I can remember the contrast between the coziness 
and homelikeness of grandfather's handloom up- 
stairs, and the noisy ten hours in the factory with 
only time for one family meal during the day. 
Where men and women may largely control the 
workday, the spiritual demands of the home 
must not be subordinate to economic well-being. 

If then, even the earning of daily bread should 


not be allowed to interfere with the higher ends 
of the home, it is evident that no institution can 
have claims which will spoil this sacred spot. 
School and church call for a large place in our 
lives, and will repay what most of us give to 
them, but their plans and methods should always 
be subordinated to the home. On the other hand, 
a genuine and reasonable interest in enterprises 
and institutions outside the home is demanded 
by the home itself, because of the breezes which 
will blow from them through the home to freshen 
and invigorate. No home is complete that does 
not open cheerfully and sympathetically toward 
the great world without. The Old Testament 
writer has observed aptly that there is a time for 
every legitimate duty; "duties never clash." 

Next to the spiritual interests of the home, I 
should place the bread-winning. The other affairs 
of life must arrange themselves about one's call- 
ing. Meetings, conventions of school or church 
or club, or participation in government, must find 
a time and place which will not clash with one's 
endeavor to earn a living for self and family. 

Next ought to come the church as an institution 
which seeks to further our religious education, 
and afford an opportunity for our generosity and 
altruistic service. Not, mark you, as the only ex- 
pression of the religious spirit, any more than 
other institutions exhaust the department of life 
which they emphasize. After the home and the 
work have received attention, then there should 


be a place for this definitely unselfish task for 
which the church stands. 

This brings us to the school. Neither parent 
nor child should allow himself to arrange a pro- 
gram for the day or the year which will not leave 
room for the legitimate demands of the school. 
On the other hand, those who run these institu- 
tions should remember that they have no right, 
and there ought to be no need, to make them cover 
the whole horizon — take up all the evenings for 
instance. Much more work might be done in 
some of our schools during the day and less de- 
pendence placed upon the home to see that the 
lessons are ready for next day. The home ought 
not to be asked to do a large share of the school's 
work. The school exists purposely to relieve the 
home at this point, as well as to furnish more 
skillful training and teaching. 

Next in importance, perhaps, we ought to place 
politics, or general public questions. A certain 
degree of familiarity with public policy and prin- 
ciples of government is imperative where the 
sovereign power lies in the citizen. 

No life can be complete that has not room and 
leisure for pure sociability. This will continue 
to seek its expression through multitudes of or- 
ganizations, as well as in informal neighborliness. 
But an undue emphasis upon it is the surest way 
to shallowness and inanity. It should be pure 
relaxation, and no one is entitled to that who has 
not put himself under some degree of strain. 


As to what may come to us through books, 
music, and pictures, or what we may say through 
them, one may regard them as definite attempts 
at intellectual and aesthetic culture. Happy the 
individual who deliberately cultivates some taste 
in such viands. 

Certainly much may be enjoyed and genuine 
service given to our fellows without completing 
this circle, but he who seeks to make the most of 
himself will find it necessary to throw open his 
entire nature to the influences in the midst of 
which he has been planted. 

Sixth. But, after all, it is with this as with 
all that concerns us: there is something more 
vital than a program, something deeper, more 
fundamental, than a method ; and that something 
is what we call spirit. And there are certain things 
much more vital than the institutions by means 
of which they find some sort of expression. Love 
is more than home, a willing mind is more valu- 
able than a school, honesty and thrift are more 
precious than any form of organized industry, re- 
ligion is greater than the church, and sympathy 
is deeper than any expression of it. Do not sus- 
pect for a moment that in suggesting the church 
shall be subordinated to the home, and asked to 
accommodate its meetings and activities to those 
of this more ancient institution, that I am giving 
second place to religion. Religion is an atmos- 
phere; religion is a flavor; religion is leaven; re- 
ligion is like the ether of the scientist; religion 


is like the sun — "there is nothing hid from the 
heat thereof." The church is specifically its 
agency, but the home and every department which 
has grown out of it should be equally pervaded 
with religion. 

Come now, ye that would arrange life at any 
point without acknowledging the Cause, the Con- 
trol, of life ! Take him into all your counsels, and 
know assuredly he will crowd nothing ! Well did 
the greatest Religious Interpreter say, "My yoke 
is easy and my burden is light." Put on the har- 
ness of religion with which to pull the whole load 
of life. That was a fine reminder for Martha 
when Jesus made known to her Mary's wisdom in 
placing the emphasis upon the "manner of spirit 
you are of" ; truly, she has something that no one 
can take away. 

So we may learn to put "first things first," and 
above all to catch the Master's spirit, "Learn of 
me" — that subtle, indefinable something about 
Christianity which cannot be put into the theol- 
ogies, but which abides in any life it succeeds in 
entering; the savory grace that makes us con- 
siderate of each other, that overlooks many 
blunders of method, but that somehow leads men 
to love righteousness more than life. Given such 
a spirit, a passion for knowledge, and a keen sense 
of honor, and all things are ours; the doors of 
the universe stand open to such, and the program 
of such a life will have no place for worry, for in- 
dolent wishing, or empty regrets. 



Superintendent Boise District, Boise, Idaho 

James David Gillilan was born May 19, 1858, 
in Jackson, Ohio. He had the advantages of the 
public schools and academy, but did not com- 
plete his college course. In 1883 he became a 
member of the Utah Mission under appointment 
of Bishop Wiley, and in 1898 he began work in 
Idaho. In 1892 Bishop Hurst appointed him pre- 
siding elder in Utah. In 1904 Bishop Spellmeyer 
appointed him presiding elder of La Grande 
District, Idaho Conference, and in 1912 Bishop 
Luccock appointed him to the superintendency 
of the Boise District, which position he holds at 
present. He was a delegate to the General Con- 
ference at Los Angeles in 1904 and again in 1912 
at Minneapolis. 

In 1910 the Willamette University conferred 
upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. His 
book, Trail Tales, will be issued by the Methodist 
Book Concern this fall. 



"Behold the man!"— John 19. 5. 

Those words which contain the advice calcu- 
lated to do the most good are great words. Those 
pointing to life are the best and the greatest. 
The universal world has been looking for life, 
and it has been asking for it in all the ages. Too 
often when the world's children have asked for 
bread they have been given the hard stone of 
traditional dogma; they have had to take or re- 
fuse the old serpent when they desired meat. 
The only bread is Jesus: the only fish, Ichthus, 
Jesus Christ, Saviour of Men. (Iesous Christos, 
Theou Uios, Soter.) Dogmatism may have been 
good theology once, yet it may be out of date ; for 
theology is a progressive science. 

If the advice tending to give one life and safety 
is the greatest, then the three greatest expressions 
known to mankind are the utterance of three 
men: Isaiah, when he said, "Look unto me, and 
be ye saved, all the ends of the earth" (Isa. 45. 
22) ; John the Baptist, "Behold the Lamb of 
God!" (John 1. 36) ; and Pilate, most unchristian, 



in the text quoted. The seeker for the tragic 
need not go to Euripides or Shakespeare for in- 
human acts and scenes of human suffering. For 
meaningful truth the Bible cannot be surpassed. 
To mention them would for the student of the 
Word be waste of time. But this scene herein 
depicted is the most stupid and at once the most 
stupendous ever painted on the canvas scroll of 
the history of man ; the Creator of the race being 
judged by his creatures as a criminal. Climax 
and anti-climax are shown in one act. 

Some years ago, accompanied by my wife, I 
stepped into the courtroom in a small town in 
southern Utah. It was the judgment day of that 
term. After a number of cases had been disposed 
of, the judge, turning to the high-booted sheriff, 
said in a very calm tone of voice, "Bring in the 
next prisoner." We heard his heavy footfall on 
the steel steps as he descended to the cage where 
lay the accused. We could hear the jingle of the 
keys, the clack of the thrown bolt, the creak of 
the iron door on its rusty hinges, and the sound 
of two ascending the stairs. 

The man, pale from excitement and long im- 
prisonment, was seated in the presence of the 

"Mr. C , you have been found guilty of 

murder in the first degree and the jury has made 
no recommendation for mercy. That jury was 
made up of your peers, and has carefully brought 
in this verdict. Have you anything to say as to 


why the judgment of the court should not now be 
pronounced upon you?" said the judge. 

"No, sir/' replied the prisoner. 

"By the laws of this Territory, you are per- 
mitted to choose the manner by which you be 
brought to your death, either hanging by the neck 
or by shooting. Which do you prefer?" 

"I prefer to be shot, sir." 

The judgment of the court is that you be con- 
fined in this jail in the custody of the sheriff of 
this county until August — , at which time you 
will be taken to some convenient place and there 
shot until you are dead. And may God Almighty 
have mercy on your soul !" 

"Thank you, sir," said the culprit. 

When we saw the condemned stand before that 
mild-mannered little man from West Virginia our 
attention was fixed on him ; but when we heard a 
speech so short and so terrible in its extension, 
we naturally looked on the speaker. He seemed 
to have the power of life or death in his posses- 
sion. We then beheld the men. 

I would call your attention to the men in this 
case — Jesus and Pilate. Here are two who are 
in some respects similar. The bloody Roman 
and the bleeding Jew are facing each other. Pi- 
late is said to have been compelled hastily to 
leave sunny Italy because of his desire to escape 
the avenger of blood, he having committed the 
crime of murder there. His hands were imbrued 
with the blood of vengeance — blood not his own. 


Jesus has his hands covered with blood, but it is 
his own; blood that is flowing for the sins of 
others, and not for revenge. 

As in the case of his burial and the fixing of 
the guard, church and state, never a very holy 
alliance, are perfectly united as to purpose: that 
of destroying Jesus. In this instance the elements 
of mercy are on the side of the state and Pilate. 

In all historical times it has been required of 
the accused that he stand for sentence, so that 
the people could see the one on whom their own 
law was about to wreak punishment. So Jesus 
stood. The judge was hesitating. Should he, or 
should he not? Would he, or would he not? 
Now the balances swing downward, the one carry- 
ing Jesus in the mind of his judge. "I will loose 
him and let him go," mentally spoke he. 

"If you release him you are no friend of Csesar, 
and we shall inform on you," yelled the mob. 

While thus hesitating a servant thrust a wax- 
tablet note into the hand of Pilate, who reading 
it, threw it from him and said sotto voce, "Curse 
the woman ! why does she not attend to her own 
affairs and let me alone?" 

It was a kindly and womanly warning from his 
wife saying, "Have thou nothing to do with that 
just man: for I have suffered many things this 
day in a dream because of him." Pilate is not the 
last man who rejected the timely and wise advice 
of a careful wife and went to oblivion because of 
it. It were mere speculation to say that possibly 


Pilate may have had a feeling that at some future 
place the positions of himself and his Lord would 
be reversed. 

But behold the spectacle! Pilate represented 
the Roman empire that arrogated to itself all 
power on earth. He was about to exercise that 
power. Jesus had all power in heaven and on 
earth. He knew it but permitted Rome to have 
her day. But Pilate had some rights. Was he 
not sent to care for the interests of the Roman 
empire? Had not the Jews been troublesome? 

Was it not his oath to rule righteously and give 
special attention to the zealous machinations of 
the Hebrews and to keep them in check? There 
had already risen many who called themselves 
Christ. He was not a theologian or a worshiper 
of Jehovah, but a student of history, possibly. 
Pilate was representative of universal Rome, yet 
by his own recorded utterances he was a coward. 
We do not condemn him; he does it unaided by 
us. He sentenced to death the man he proclaimed 

Good-by, Pilate; we shall see you no more till 
we all appear before this same majestic Culprit 
who now stands unabashed before your tribunal. 
You shall look on him whom you pierced, and yet 
he would have had mercy on you had you but 
asked it. But you find, Pilate, it is always harder 
to forgive those whom you wrong than those who 
wrong you. He is the final Judge — and "the 
judge of all the earth will do right." 


We will now take the advice of the self-con- 
victed Roman, Pilate. We will "behold the man." 

We see "a man of sorrows and acquainted with 
grief." What a complete man ! Has his like ever 
been seen outside the arena where athletes con- 
tended? His is the perfect physique, tanned by 
outdoor living, and the fully developed body and 
limbs show one accustomed to steady toil. It is 
no wonder the money-changers fled before him 
armed with but a twist of ropes. He was able to 
tie them in knots and throw them out bodily. 
His is no emaciated, anemic face and effemi- 
nized form such as is often displayed on the walls 
of our homes. His is the majesty of perfection 
in all things becoming a man. He has never 
sinned against nature. 

That mighty young giant stood there with 
hands tied; fingers stiffened and swollen were 
covered with the blood that had spattered down 
upon them from the crown of thorns, and the 
blackened clots in some places still clung to his 
beard and clothing. Those hands that had been 
used always to spread abroad in welcome to the 
children and the helpless feeble folk were soon to 
be spread again but wider apart on the cross. We 
see that eye that gazed on Pilate, till the man 
haunted by it was driven to suicide, now the 
calmest in that turbid multitude. He is really 
and truly Lord of all. 

When we "behold the man" we see the Maker 
of the universe. "By him were all things made; 


and without him was not anything made that 
was made." If Maker of all, he is not a product. 
It is said by some that he can be accounted for 
as being the product of the times. Mirabile dictu! 
Why have the times produced no others like him ? 
By the story of evolution, there ought to have 
been many more as good and even better by this 
time. But one prominent writer and churchman 
says, "We need not to be afraid to say that Jesus 
Christ is the supreme product of evolution in 
human history" (see Theology of an Evolutionist, 
p. 74, Lyman Abbott). Saint John was not so 
wise; Saint Paul was limited as to that knowl- 
edge, for both affirmed him Creator of all! Yes, 
he is the Maker of all ; he is God, for Saint Paul's 
shortest description of him is in these words: 
"God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto 
himself" (2 Cor. 5. 19). "God manifest in the 
flesh" is what Jesus was when on earth. 

In him we see the "friend of sinners" — the 
epithet the rabble thought the strongest when 
they reported his conduct to the disciples, for 
whom they were acting as self-appointed spies. 
That was the finest speech the would-be maligners 
of his character ever made. He is the only Friend 
sinners ever had. When he sat at the table and 
ate with the people, sharing their bread, he was 
their committed Friend ever afterward; and "if 
any man sin, we have an Advocate with the 
Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." 

When he went through the streets the children, 


fresh from their mud pies and dirt, common or 
uncommon, were taken gladly into his arms and 
blest. Though scolded doubtless by the stern dis- 
ciples, yet he hesitated never a whit but chided 
them and counseled them to become themselves 
childlike. Ever since then he has been going up 
and down the vile ways and the wild ways, where 
unclean men and women are to be found, calling 
all to him; he receives all just as they are, em- 
bracing and holding them till all uncleanness is 
gone and until the wayward heart beats in har- 
mony with his own, and until their sins are trans- 
ferred to him. Then he says "Go, and sin no 
more." Thus it was he was called the friend of 
sinners, and as a blasphemer was put to death 
"bearing our sins in his own body on the tree." 
"He was made sin who knew no sin." "By his 
stripes we are healed." Behold him, your 
Saviour! Behold the Man of Sorrows! him who 
knows how to sympathize with any heartbroken 
soul ! Behold the Maker of the universe with its 
all! Behold the Judge of all the earth, and see 
for the nonce the mildness and at once the just- 
ness of the Son of man and Son of God! Behold 
him, the Friend of sinners wistfully looking for 
them and looking out for them, ready to defend, 
forgive and save! Look on him enthroned in 
glory, the King of all the earth, before whom all 
nations shall be gathered, and to whom the 
highest angels must make obeisance, and yet who 
shall choose us as a jury to sit on the case of the 


angels who once rebelled. Thus shall we share 
his glory. 

Behold him, your Saviour! Behold the Man! 

Majestic beauty sits enthroned 

Upon the Saviour's brow; 
His head with radiant glories crowned, 

His lips with grace o'erflow. 

He saw me plunged in deep despair; 

He flew to my relief; 
For me he bore the painful cross 

And carried all my grief. 

To him I owe my lite and breath 

And all the joys I have; 
He makes me triumph over death, 

He saves me from the grave. 

Since from his bounty I receive 

Such proofs of love divine, 
Had I a thousand hearts to give, 

Lord, they should all be thine. 


First Church, Boise, Idaho 

Wilsie M. Martin was born in Johnsville, 
Canada, November 12, 1876, and moved with his 
parents to Santa Ana, California. He graduated 
from the University of California in 1900 with the 
degree of B.A., having been senior class president 
and member of four university debating teams. 
In September, 1900, he entered the California 
Conference and was stationed at Oak Park, Sacra- 
mento in 1900-1901; was assistant pastor First 
Church, Oakland, 1901-1902; he attended Drew 
Theological Seminary 1902-1903, and while here 
served as assistant pastor of Madison Avenue 
Church, New York City, and in the summer sup- 
plied Hanson Place Church, Brooklyn. He served 
First Church, Chico, California, 1903-1905; First 
Church, Alameda, 1905-1912, and now is serving 
his third year as pastor of the First Church, 
Boise, Idaho, it being the largest in the Idaho 
Conference. He is also the chaplain of the Second 
Infantry Idaho National Guard. 




"For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: 
and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and 
his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The 
mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of 
Peace."— Isa. 9. 6. 

Well might they call the Babe in the manger 
wonderful. Wonderful because of what he was 
and what he was to do. We are surprised at the 
deeds when we know the life, and we demand such 
a life to explain the deeds. He not only marks 
the difference; he is the difference. There are 
plenty of men in the world who know that things 
are different who have never acknowledged the 
cause of it. He is the watershed that feeds the 
rivers that change the deserts into gardens. He 
is the Gulf Stream that has touched the arctic 
shores of time and is wooing them into beauty. 
He is the sun at whose coming the darkness flees, 
the mists melt, the chill and frost disappear. He 
has become the Counselor of man, the shaper of 
government, and his kingdom is a kingdom with- 
out frontiers. 

What has Christ brought that is new? 



First. The thought that we are all related. 
In a world seamed with race, class, and religious 
distinctions this was a tremendous gift. Elec- 
tricity had been always in the world, man had 
felt its power, described some of its features, but 
the man who really discovered electricity was the 
man who harnessed it, made it work. It may oe 
that some nebulous ideas similar to those of 
Jesus may be found or read into the sayings of 
ancient men. The point is that Jesus made them 
work. The practical thing for us to realize is that 
the world was cut up into little provinces, cities, 
and counties, each distrustful, suspicious, hostile 
toward the others ; the fact is that life was cut up 
into great social distinctions that could not be 
bridged. The fact is when Jesus came there was 
some race solidarity, but there was nowhere any 
sense of real brotherhood. Now Jesus made this 
truth — that we are related — to work. He made 
it operate in his own first group of disciples. 
Rich and poor, pharisees and publicans, found 
in him the center of their life, and through him 
they became friends and brothers to each other. 
He made it work when they opened the doors of 
fellowship to the Gentiles. He made it work 
when Philemon and Onesimus, owner and slave, 
could both be members of the same spiritual 
brotherhood. "In Jesus Christ there is neither 
Jew nor Greek." It is this truth made vital 
through Jesus that is breaking down the antago- 
nisms between men and sections. In widening 


circles the force of it becomes apparent. In many 
lines we have to realize that we are members one 
of another. More and more the brotherhood idea 
and the brotherhood spirit grows upon the world ; 
increasing numbers of men are espousing the idea 
and assuming the obligations. Trade already 
knows no color line and no race prejudice. We 
sell in every market. We have come to see that 
chemistry, expressing God's law, is no respecter 
of persons, that there is not one truth for China 
and another for Canada. We have come far 
under the drive of the truth of Jesus Christ in 
recognizing the essential solidarity of the human 

The basis of brotherhood is spiritual. Material- 
ism has no ground for brotherhood. For a thou- 
sand years by the short sword and the javelin 
Rome kept the peace of the world, but it was not 
brotherhood. It was the domination of brute 
force. Self-interest may induce us for a time to 
play fair, but only for a time. The basis of in- 
tegrity must lie deeper than the dollar. A real 
gentleman is not the product of calculation, but 
of the outflowing of a knightly, chivalrous, gentle 
spirit. Materialism never has and never can bring 
the race together into a unity. We come from 
different climes, we are of different races, with 
different customs and products; we differ in 
habits. The Korean shakes his own hand, and 
makes his display in the backyard, and reads up 
and down and from right to left. We differ in 


color and language; we differ in talent and 
ability ; we face different opportunities. The only 
realm where we can get together is in the realm 
of spirit. Courage is of no particular soil, honor 
appears in every clime, love glows in every breast. 
We differ and shall differ in the perishables, in 
the non-essentials ; it is only in the imperishables, 
in the essentials of faith, heroism, patience, love, 
that we are alike. 

Likeness indicates relationship, but it does not 
establish brotherhood. How comes it that we are 
alike in those fundamentals? How do you know 
you are brothers ? By reason of a common origin. 
The Hindu was right when he proposed fo open 
the Parliament of Religions with the Lord's 
Prayer. "Our Father who art in heaven" — there 
we are one. There we find ground for our brother- 
hood. We are related through our divine quali- 
ties, not through our animal appetencies. A 
multitude of blessings flow from this conscious- 
ness that we are related, but we find that rela- 
tionship in God. The greatest gift that Jesus 
made to the world was the unveiling of God, the 
Holy Father. 

In Jesus Christ the manifestation of the Father, 
men are brothers; in him East and West come 
together ; in him the estranged classes find a com- 
mon fellowship. A son of poverty, a son of the 
down-trodden, a son of heavy labor, he marks 
the common road to God. He did the will of his 
Father. The road to God, the royal road, the 


common road, a road so plain a fool need not err 
therein, is doing the will of God. 

The will of the Father is the law of home. The 
law of the world is the will of God. The law of 
successful life is the will of the eternal One. Life 
consists in being in harmony with God. My 
highest well-being consists in my life moving ac- 
cording to the divine plan. The awful thing 
about sin is that it is unfilial treachery and rea- 
son. It is a revolt against the divine will. 

What is the great common task of all — the 
mark of brotherhood? Why, doing the will of 
God. That is the noblest thing we can do and 
it is the one common thing we can do. If any 
man will do the will of God, the same, said Jesus, 
is my brother, my sister, my mother. When will 
wars cease? When men do the will of God. When 
will the vices that curse humanity end? When 
men do the will of God. When will wrong come 
down from the throne and mount the scaffold? 
When men do the will of God. When will there 
be no more poverty, no more destitution, no more 
child labor? When the will of God is done by 
men. When will the blessed song of the angels 
come true? When men everywhere do the will 
of God. I heartily agree with President Nicholas 
Murray Butler that we need to emphasize our 
oneness with the race. The way to do it is 
through a common spiritual consciousness and a 
united effort to do the holy will of God. 

Second. A new attitude toward work. In a 


general way work had been regarded as a curse, 
as a mark of inferiority, a badge of slavery. It 
was a conception held generally that slaves were 
for work. Now Jesus taught that work is a bless- 
ing and not a curse; that to be able to do and to 
do are the marks of superiority. He revealed in 
work the divine possibility. He said, "I must 
work the works of him that sent me, while it is 
day." And on another occasion he said, "My 
Father worketh hitherto, and I work." When he 
thus identified work with the divine thought and 
the divine process and the divine life, it could no 
longer be menial and slavish; it became an in- 
strument of self-expression and enfranchisement. 
Further, the world now says, "Blessed is he who 
labors long; blessed is he who does much both 
as regards amount and quality." But Jesus 
says : "Blessed is he that is faithful." That places 
the emphasis over on the spiritual side of labor. 
That gives every man a fair chance. Human life 
is full of inequalities. Keats dies at the age of 
twenty-six; Oliver Wendell Holmes at eighty- 
three. Alexander Hamilton dies in the full tide 
of a great career. Gladstone when he is over 
ninety. Whitefield dies in middle life; Wesley 
an octogenarian. There is a great deal in having 
an opportunity. Some men never have a full 
chance. All they have is an eleventh-hour oppor- 
tunity. As great men as the world has ever seen 
have died unsung because they never had a big 
opening. But for the French War and the Revolu- 


tion, Washington would have lived and died a 
genial, successful country squire. I am reading 
Eagged Trousered Philanthropists, written by a 
painter who left this manuscript and died. The 
man has the vividness of a Zola and the feeling 
of a Hugo. What might he have done had he but 
had a fair chance? What might Robert Burns 
have done if he had had an inspiring environ- 

Then there are others who seemingly have as 
good openings as their fellows, but they are 
duller and slower. They are forever trying and 
never quite reaching the goal. They are always 
on the second elevens. They are good enough to 
be privates but nothing more. Professor Smith 
points out that there are three parables of Jesus 
which illustrate how God regards men. First, the 
parable where men receive five, two, and one talent. 
He gave precisely the same commendation — "Thou 
hast been faithful over a few things." Here we 
have equality of reward where there is inequality 
of ability. Second, the parable of the men who 
were hired at the eleventh hour. The eleventh- 
hour men had been standing waiting for an op- 
portunity to work. They seized it when it came, 
and they received equal pay — justifying equal re- 
ward where the opportunity is unequal. Third, 
there is the parable of the talents which gathers 
up the ideas of the other two. Each man was 
given one talent — same ability, same opportunity. 
These are rewarded according to their devotion. 


The divine rewards are to be according to fidelity. 
What a new face that puts on life! Perhaps as 
men see it you have never done much, but as God 
sees it your little may be as precious in fidelity 
as another man's great success. Perhaps oppor- 
tunity has given you a niggardly chance, but you 
have been as true as though you had a king's em- 
pire. Here I labor in a little corner, and it is 
stony and bare and bleak, but then I am to be 
measured only by the spirit I put into it. The 
seer of Patmos was expressing the idea of Jesus 
when he said the faithful have a right to the city 

Third. Among the gifts that Jesus brought 
was a continual sense of freshness. One of the 
sad things in the world in the time of Jesus was 
its sense of weariness, its spirit of ennui ; and out 
of these had grown a lack of fidelity, a decrease 
in buoyancy, a retrogression, and decadence. 
After men had filled every place of power and had 
grown wise with knowledge, they exclaimed, 
"Both knowledge and power are vanity." But 
Jesus brought to the world, by the widening of 
horizons, by the lifting up of the spirit, by the 
propulsion of new impulses, a sense of freshness 
and of buoyancy. With goals unreached and with 
lights gleaming ahead, there could be no sense of 
having arrived. And so life under the power of 
Jesus became full of striving; it was possessed 
of the spirit of going on; it was animated with 
the thought that the best was yet to come. He 


led man to find every morning new beauty and 
new significance in all the common incidents of 
the way. 

O fly away on silent wing, ye boding owls of night. 
O welcome little birds that sing the coming in of 

For new and new and ever new, 
The golden bud within the blue, 
And every morning seems to say, 
"There's something happy on the way, 
And God sends love to you." 

Fourth. The emphasizing and lifting up of per- 
sonality. In the first place Jesus was not an idea, 
a sentiment, an influence. He was a person. He 
was born in Bethlehem. He grew, he toiled, he 
ministered, he agonized on the cross. He was, 
he is, and he is evermore to be Jesus the Christ. 
The record indicates that he was a most original 
and marvelous personality. As a boy, he amazes 
the wise men in the temple. The great desert 
preacher, when he sees him sitting by the Jordan, 
says, "Behold the Lamb of God." He says again 
— and Jesus had not yet begun his ministry — "He 
must increase; I must decrease." Single-handed, 
Jesus nonplussed and overawed the Pharisees. 
His sight and voice struck hardened soldiers with 
consternation, his presence attracted mighty 
crowds. Standing alone, buffeted, accused, he 
puts the proconsul on trial. At his word men 
left all to walk the way of persecution. A won- 


derful personality gleams through the record. 
The measure of a man's personality is the impress 
he leaves on the world. The character of Christ 
grows more attractive. His teachings are more 
followed, his star of power rises constantly. Of 
all the mighty personalities who have left their 
impress on time his is the mightiest. He was a 
personality. He was a Person. 

In the second place he emphasized personality. 
He said he knew his sheep by name. He did not 
speak to audiences, he spoke to living men. He 
valued institutions, but he valued men more. He 
reverenced the Sabbath, but it was not too holy 
to prevent doing good. It was made for men, he 
said. Sometimes as he spoke to groups he spoke 
straight home to single men. Many might throng 
about him, but let one hand of faith be stretched 
forth ever so quietly, he knew. What respect he 
manifested always for personality is shown in the 
story of the woman who was a sinner. Jesus 
never blurred any man's life, but after contact 
with him that life stood out naked and clear. 
According to the teaching of Jesus, every man is 
an eternal somewhat. None are common or un- 
clean. Each one is to be reckoned by himself. 
What was the curse of Jesus's day? Impersonal- 
ism. God was an abstraction. Man was reckoned 
by the herd. The mass of the people were only 
pawns and tools, instruments to be used and cast 
aside. Religion was cold, mechanical, and im- 


What a change Jesus has wrought! We are 
lacking here yet, as I shall point out, but the 
whole worth-while drift of life is to personalize 
relationships. That is the meaning of democracy, 
of the feminist movement, of the crusade against 
child labor. The striking off the chains of slaves, 
the amelioration of prisons have come because 
of a new regard for the person. Jesus saw in 
every man the image of the divine. He saw in 
every man an immortal spirit. He saw in every 
sin-cursed life something of infinite sweetness. 

In the third place, if he personalized man, he 
likewise personalized God. It was not the divine 
nor the unknown, nor the eternal force, nor the 
divine something, nor the power that makes for 
righteousness. It was God, the Father — my 
Father. The danger of our day is that we shall 
not emphasize this truth of Jesus. The danger 
in religion is impersonalism. God is but a misty 
power, an unknowable force for righteousness. 
He is but a generalization, whose chief virtue is 
that it is capitalized — The Good, The Truth, The 

In reform we are eager for mass movements, 
forgetting that lasting reforms are ever personal. 
Impersonal charity is as unsatisfactory as it is 
icy. The menace in all relationships is that they 
are impersonal. The minister who preaches to 
audiences and not to living folks needs a new 
baptism. The curer of souls must be gifted with 
the power of dealing in a personal way with every 


soul. The doctor who sees only cases may be very 
skillful, but he is not the kind of man you want 
when your child is ill. Is not impersonalism one 
of the main causes of the friction between labor 
and capital? Men work for employers that they 
do not know, and other men draw dividends from 
the toil of workers they have never seen, let alone 
known. Do not the evils of the world arise very 
largely from impersonalism? Do you think that 
a man who had a vivid sense of the personal worth 
of a life could debauch that life with drink? It 
is because we value the person as of less worth 
than revenue or delight in satisfaction that we 
can make him the victim of our greed or our pas- 
sions. Too often women and men who call them- 
selves by the name of Christ treat those who serve 
them as if we were automatons. 

The only remedy for this is the vital thought 
of Jesus — the emphasis of personality. The 
highest truth is personal, the Omnipotent must 
be a personality ; God is not a shadow nor a mist, 
he is our Father. In all our dealings we need to 
remember that each individual is a living life. 

Fifth. Christ made another new contribution 
to the world when he enthroned character. Men 
had said wealth is the great thing, therefore get 
wealth. Other men had said power is the essen- 
tial thing, therefore get power. Others had made 
fame the goal of striving. Plato had said that 
culture was the chief good. But Jesus exalted 
character as the one supreme thing. The only 


thing that abides is character. It outlasts the 
bronze of power and the marble of fame. He 
created a passion for personal righteousness. He 
made religion the symbol of purity, the exponent 
of moral clearness. He saw what man might 
be; then he said, "That best man you are to be." 
He furnished a life of sinlessness as an ideal for 
men. He refused to accept ethical shortcomings. 
He recognized no moral limitations. He 
stretched before men's minds a divine goal of 
perfection and then bade them climb toward that. 
Hitherto the chief figures on the stage of time 
had been the soldier, the scholar, the statesman, 
the successful. Jesus introduced a new figure. 
He made sainthood the noblest object of human 

Sicoth. He came enabling men to be good and 
to grow better. He so empowers that lad there 
that he comes to manhood with a heart of purity, 
with the vital forces at the floodtide. He so sus- 
tains and reenforces that lad that all the while 
his life grows in beauty and power and worth. 
That is the great miracle, the bringing forth the 
divine within us, the causing the real man to 
emerge. Further, he lays those pierced hands of 
suffering and of service on the wasted life, that 
driftwood piece of humanity, and lo! a trans- 
formation is effected. The bleared and hardened 
face is softened with the beauty, of holy striving. 
The foul speech is replaced with hymns of praise. 
The crooked methods are made fair and open. 


The besotted habits are swept away and in their 
stead there is purity and moral earnestness. No 
other power in the world is able to change the 
leopard's spots. That is the gift of Jesus — "power 
to become the sons of God." 

Seventh. For ages men had dreamed of the 
life to be. In the light of that hope they had lain 
down to rest and had gone forth to toil. It had 
been a glorious dream. But many times they had 
yearned to know if the dream were true. Some- 
times this hope took the form of gross resurrec- 
tion, sometimes of race or memory immortality. 
"God had hidden eternity in men's hearts." It 
was a hope, an aspiration, but nothing more. It 
is a truth too deep for Plato's logic or Job's un- 
folding. Only God could do that. Jesus lifts 
the life-to-be up from aspiration to certainty. 
He makes it real. Once men hoped it might be 
so. He makes us sure of it. Through him we 
see the shore lines of that immortal continent 
and know "that if this earthly house of this 
tabernacle be dissolved, we have a building of 
God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the 
heavens." This gift of certainty has broken the 
bars of darkness, lifted the clouds of grief, 
solaced the mourning, and comforted the dying. 
It has planted immortal blooms on the graves of 
our dead, it has given life, meaning, and glory, it 
has crowned the lips with laughter and filled the 
heart with singing. 

Finally. Christ taught a new law of happiness. 


The way to be happy, some had said, is to be idle. 
Some said the way to be happy is to have much ; 
the key to joy is possession. Others said he alone 
is happy who is crowned with the laurel of suc- 
cess, he alone is happy who wears the chaplet of 
fame and honor. Some said pleasure is the god- 
dess of happiness ; she guards the garden of bliss 
— woo her. But the seekers of happiness found 
her not in idleness, nor in possession, neither in 
the fading laurel, nor in the drooping flowers of 
pleasure. "If ye would be happy," said Jesus, 
"serve." Every cup of water given in love gives 
back a blessing to the giver. "Except a corn of 
wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth 
alone." The way of the cross is the way of joy. 
The rose of happiness grows only in the garden 
of service ; the fragrant flowers of peace are found 
only in the way of kindness; heart's ease is 
granted to those alone who lift up and help. The 
men whose days are sun-kissed, joy-filled, the men 
of the glad heart are the men who follow their 
Lord in service. 

From these truths, that Christ has made to 
grip the lives and consciences of men, have flowed 
incalculable blessings. The mind has been en- 
franchised and from the enfranchised mind has 
come every form of industrial and commercial 
progress, every comfort and modern convenience. 
The ills that curse have been lifted or are in 
progress of being lifted; manhood has been 
liberated, woman set free, childhood recognized. 


Freedom, education, opportunity, a sense of obli- 
gation, a passion for righteousneess, a person- 
alizing of human relationships, the power for 
clean living, a spirit of service — these are some 
of the precious gifts that Christ has brought. 



President Montana Wesleyan University, 
Helena, Montana 

Charles L. Bovard was born in Scott County, 
Indiana, October 10, 1860, and received his edu- 
cation in the Normal Collegiate Institute and 
Hanover College. He received the degrees Ph.B. 
from the Illinois Wesleyan University and D.D. 
from the Moores' Hill College in 1909. He was 
licensed to preach at the age of twenty-two, re- 
ceived on trial in the Southwest Indiana Confer- 
ence in 1883, and filled various appointments in 
that Conference for seven years. After a few 
months as missionary at Tuscon, Arizona, Bishop 
Mallalieu appointed him to the superintendency 
of the New Mexico English Mission, where he 
served six years. His subsquent pastorates have 
been: Laporte, Indiana, two years; Helena, Mon- 
tana, four years; Mount View, Butte, Montana, 
three years ; Oxford, Ohio, four years, and a short 
pastorate in Minot, North Dakota, from which 
he was called to the superintendency of the 
Butte District. After one year in that capacity, 
he was appointed to the position he now occupies 
as president of Montana Wesleyan University. 




"For he supposed his brethren would have under- 
stood, . . . but they understood not." — Acts 7. 25. 

Dear preacher-brother Stephen! How our 
hearts are drawn to thee as we feel the deep and 
impelling love of Jesus Christ distilling through 
thy lofty speech ! "Men, brethren, and fathers, 
hearken." This was tender, like unto Christ from 
the cross. This address of Stephen has been 
mistakenly called a "defense." He knew as he 
looked into the set faces before him that his doom 
was sealed ; he could not be true and save his life ; 
true he must be. He pleads, but not for life nor 
honor. He speaks as one facing his last oppor- 
tunity for pleading a life-engrossing cause. His 
words fairly leap forth from a heart ready to 
burst with love. He felt as Paul did when he 
wrote, "I could wish myself accursed for my 
brethren and kinsmen's sake." Nothing weighed 
with him but to get the truth into the minds and 
heart of his people. And how he does this thing ! 
How wise, how logical, how artful and cumulative 
his arguments! Whence the poise in the midst 
of such a sweep and rush of thought? The Holy 



Spirit spake in and through him — upheld and 
strengthened him. True, like his Master, "him- 
self he could not save" ; but the early and latter 
rains fell upon his words and death with rich re- 
sults. Saul was a witness and never got away 
from what he heard and saw. "No Stephen, no 
Paul," say the Fathers. First of the bloody train 
that has marched across the pages of Christian 
history — first and goodliest — we thank thee, 
Stephen. When we are at our best, when we feel 
like mounting up on wings of eagles, we still gaze 
aloft to thy martyr throne hard by the mount of 

Stephen struck at the deepest weakness not 
only in the life of his own nation or his own time, 
but of all peoples and all times — spiritual stu- 
pidity. "There are none so blind as those who 
will not see." It was the cry of the prophets. 
The people had dull ears, blind eyes, torpid and 
unresponding hearts. Isaiah said they would not 
"consider." He called to them to awake and arise. 
The ass and the ox were showing more alertness. 
The fowler saw that it was vain to spread the 
net in the sight of any bird; but men walked 
into the open net in broad daylight. They stoned 
their prophets — men who could have helped them. 
At last they seemed to have lost entirely their 
moral perspective, shouting defiantly, "Evil, be 
thou my good!" 

This same penchant for blundering was carried 
over into the times of Christ and his apostles. 


To Paul it was a dark veil over the people's eyes, 
"un taken away." (John said Christ had come 
to his own and his own had refused him — "re- 
ceived him not.") They could not understand 
the plain meanings of their own writings. Even 
the loving and persistent explanations of the 
Great Teacher helped them nothing. They made 
puzzles out of his plain words. They construed 
his acts of beneficence into either acts of diabol- 
ism or disloyalty to his country and religion. 
They hung upon his speech not for the purposes 
of profit but that they might find some grounds 
for accusation. At last they succeeded, and in 
all of its meaning, Peter boldly declares: "Ye 
have denied the Holy One and Just . . . and 
have killed the Prince of Life" — the colossal 
blunder of the ages. 

But this sermon is not to exhaust itself upon 
ancient history, although that history is rich 
with the wisdom of God. I should be only too 
glad to report that this human stupidness had 
largely passed away. But, alas! the blind spot 
on the soul still remains. Light there is — in- 
creased light — the Sun of Righteousness shining 
brilliantly for those who have eyes. God is re- 
vealed more clearly with each conquest of science, 
each added page of interpreted history, and yet 
how very many stupidly lie in their dark caves 
of selfish unbelief! 

Nor is this stupidity merely incidental — a 
veneer, a tinge; it is fundamental — the most 


marked characteristic of fallen human nature. 
Deity may not dispel it. Jesus, conversing with 
the woman of Samaria in compassionate helpless- 
ness, said, "If thou knewest the gift of God, and 
who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink," 
etc., thereby acknowledging his own limitations 
in the presence of blind stupidity. On a later 
occasion, with almost breaking heart, Jesus gazed 
upon Jerusalem, where he had done so many of 
his marvelous works, and uttered the wail of dis- 
appointed love and service: "O Jerusalem, Jeru- 
salem, . . . how often would I have gathered thy 
children together, even as a hen gathereth her 
chickens under her wings, and ye would not." 
Eevelation is thwarted at this point. What is as 
clear as the noonday to the awakened soul is only 
confusion to the dead soul. "They have Moses 
and the prophets" — what avails further miracu- 
lous works? "Though one should rise from the 
dead, they will not believe." 

What a striking and sad thing is this limita- 
tion we all share in matters so vital as the eternal 
welfare of those we love! Did you never as 
father, mother, or brother stand and plead with 
a loved one to see and walk in the right way — 
assured, perhaps, at first, that that one so near 
to you by the ties of nature must get your mean- 
ing? But, alas! have you not soon felt the dark 
gulf between you and the one you loved swallow- 
ing up your words as fast as uttered — emphasiz- 
ing your helplessness? You thought they would 


have understood, but they understood not. The 
defect is fundamental, an inheritance from that 
spiritual cataclysm of the soul, theologically 
designated "the fall." But here we must be care- 
ful. We must not lose sight of our mighty 
potencies. Because we cannot do a certain thing 
out of hand, is no sufficient reason for believing 
that we can do nothing. The soul of the deadest 
has something that can be appealed to. Calvin 
and Edwards were far too literal in assigning 
to death and sleep meanings that placed the hu- 
man worker in the attitude of indifference until 
sovereign grace should speak and act by creative 
power upon the natural man. 

This brings us to the very watershed of vital 
theology. We must be careful in denying to Cal- 
vinism the extreme implications of her doctrines 
of decrees, that we do not withdraw ourselves 
from that full dependence upon God for the 
regenerating act necessary to make new the stony 
hearts of men. "Paul may plant and Apollos 
water, but God must give the increase." Ac- 
knowledge this, and we are thrown instantly 
upon God — must implore his help and depend 
upon his grace for the regeneration of mankind; 
deny it, and we go on trying to add a cubit here 
and there to our moral stature. On the one 
hand, we have our great and ever-developing doc- 
trines of evangelicalism; on the other, the thou- 
sand and one diluted forms of socinianism and 
modern Unitarianism. The difficulties that were 


in the way of our fathers have largely disap- 
peared. We can see that the effective operations 
of Grod's grace do not at all interfere with the 
absolute freedom of the will. John's gracious 
words, "Ye have not chosen me, but I have chosen 
you," etc., and "no man can come to me except 
the Father . . . draw him," are in perfect har- 
mony with our sure intuition of responsibility. 
This doctrine of the soul's deadness and the need 
of the combined power of man and Omnipotence 
in the task of bringing him to life, leads us to 
the very heart of evangelism. I might safely 
challenge the citation of a single spirit-propagat- 
ing revival that has not recognized this spiritual 
deadness of the natural man. It is equally true 
that the highest and most lasting results in spir- 
itual endeavor have fully recognized man's joint 
indispensableness in the work of awakening and 
regenerating mankind. "For we are laborers to- 
gether with God." But let us come a little closer 
home with our theme. Without an attempt at 
detailed specification, let us glance at a few of 
the more general attitudes of life that illustrate 
this inborn stupidity. 

That man is stupid certainly who neglects or 
refuses adequate consideration of the deeper 
things of life. The time-honored doctrines of im- 
mortality — doctrines in no wise affected (except 
in confirmation) by the scientific learning of our 
day — are certainly worthy of serious thought. 
To-day we live here in this world with our ma- 


terial goods, our friends, and our employments; 
to-morrow we may have nothing to do with all 
these things : death has rendered them useless so 
far as we are concerned. Granted that an undue 
reflection upon a future life may be injurious, yet 
can a human intelligence, not diabolically 
blinded, go on from year to year without so 
much as a serious thought for the soul's relation- 
ship to eternity? Do the analogies of your 
earthly life show such neglect? Future situa- 
tions in this life give you much concern. You 
contemplate a change of residence, a trip abroad, 
and the contingencies are all carefully weighed; 
provisions against the remotest possible discom- 
fort are minutely made. You would justly blame 
yourself if you did otherwise. But why so in- 
different to matters of so much deeper import? 
Is it not because of imperfect understanding — 
of a fatal stupidity in spiritual things ? You are 
more stupid than the bird who sights the net that 
would ensnare him. Shake yourself free from 
that numbness which means eternal death! The 
arctic explorer knows the meaning of that pleas- 
ant bodily stupor that settles upon him when ex- 
posed to the rigors of wind and frost. It means 
death, although it appears to be a dreamless sleep. 
He must arouse himself at every cost. Yours is 
a similar situation. Our times are full of seda- 
tives, lulling the unsuspecting into reposeful 
slumber, a thousandfold more dangerous than 
the most puissant, open foe. 


Then, again, we must class that one stupid who 
refuses evidence, flouts testimony. It is not- my 
purpose to review even in outline the many 
varied evidences of the truth of the Christian re- 
ligion. Although whole libraries have been 
written upon the theme, what do they avail when 
men refuse to listen. What more direct route is 
there to conviction than that suggested by the 
psalmist, "O taste and see that the Lord is good" ? 
Our Lord also proposed that the truthfulness of 
the doctrines should be tested by experiment: 
"He who willeth to do . . . shall know of the 
doctrine." The worst of it is that this refusal 
of evidence is against our best interests. There 
might be some difficulty in getting a man to be- 
lieve to his hurt, but the gospel proposition aims 
only at our highest good. Why, here is a per- 
version so deep and ineradicable that we stand in 
awe before it, questioning if we are not facing the 
works of some occult diabolism. We have in 
books like Harold Begbie's Twice-Born Men as 
clean-cut evidence as was ever admitted to any 
court that the gospel saves the sinner from his 
sins. Nor in this country do we need books with 
long-distance examples; we have them under our 
very eyes. All is as definite and incontrover- 
tible as the testimony of the blind man, "Whereas 
I was blind, now I see." My friend, if you can- 
not believe everything, lay hold upon some great 
religious truth that does appeal to you. 

Horace Bushnell, in his college days suffered 


much from his doubts of the truth of the gospel. 
But he was a sincere inquirer and God led him 
into the full light of truth. First he fixed his 
mind upon the simplest religious truth he could 
find. He said, "I do believe in right and wrong." 
This was the entering wedge. If we but shake 
ourselves free from our deadly stupor and get in 
deadly earnest in our quest for the truth, God 
will bring us out into a clear light — a real and 
satisfactory experience. 

Once more, and in a matter that brings us back 
to our starting point — the matter at issue be- 
tween Stephen and his people — how stupid of 
man to refuse the help and fellowship of Jesus 
Christ! And first we must clear the way some- 
what from some modern misapprehensions as to 
the present-day claims of Christ upon mankind. 
That he might have expected much from those 
who dwelt with him, heard, and saw him in the 
flesh, is readily conceded. But now, what can we 
have to do with him? I will leave aside the 
transcendental features of Christ's person and 
claims for the moment (although to me these are 
valid and intensely real) and ask you to simply 
read and analyze the account we have in the 
Gospels of Christ. Does not this personality 
grasp you in a sense that no other historical 
character does ? While in the case of other great 
moralists — a Socrates or Seneca — you get hold 
of them; but in the case of Christ, does he not 
get hold of you? Does he not lift up into our 


consciousness a burning shame for our sins? In 
spite of our resistance, we feel that we must do 
something with Jesus. He has thrown himself 
into our lives. Even among the less enlightened 
peoples of the earth this effect has followed the 
story of Jesus and his work among men. And 
here comes the basis of a fellowship as real as 
any we may know, and a fellowship not at all de- 
pendent upon the actual bodily presence of 
Christ. It does rest back upon historical reality 
— grows out of it as the tree grows out of the soil, 
but is different from the soil. I do not believe 
there could be a true fellowship based upon an 
imaginary or legendary Christ. Here the most 
important element in any true fellowship — 
reality — would be wanting. 

Enough, perhaps, has been said to bridge over 
the difficulty that some honest minds have felt in 
the claims of a Christ long since withdrawn from 
this world of reality. But I do make appeal to 
our deeper consciousness, and insist that if our 
examination is sincere, we will find the Christ 
of to-day not less but much more real than he 
possibly could have been here in the flesh. If 
this is true, then how stupid of men to neglect or 
deny him! This reality is not less than that of 
the sun or light. I need not appeal to literature, 
where he shines through every page that is worth 
while — presently and retrospectively; nor do I 
need to recapitulate history in order to show 
traces of him on its every page; and in art, all 


must acknowledge that he is supreme and com- 
pelling. No; while these may confirm our faith, 
we have a more direct and convincing source of 
evidence. Let us look within, and compare the 
record in the Gospels with the image in our 
heart. I need not fear the test. 

It seemed to our Lord a puzzle that men should 
have so much difficulty in defining his character 
and person. "Have I been so long time with you, 
Philip, and yet hast thou not known me?" It is 
said that the American Indian never points out 
the beauties of landscape or sky to his com- 
panions. He believes that if beauty does not 
appeal to those who behold it, it is a waste of 
time to say anything about it. Jacob at Bethel 
awoke from his dream to exclaim, "Surely the 
Lord is in this place ; and I knew it not." 

O, my fellow men, let us free ourselves from 
this benumbing lethargy! Slumber invites, but 
is by no means compelling. The living, present 
Christ is at the door — at all the doors of our soul 
— knocking, knocking, knocking. Shall we let 
him in? 


Superintendent Butte District, Helena, 


Edward Smith is Ohio-born (1865) and farm- 
reared, of English- Scotch extraction. He is one 
of twelve children — seven sons and five daughters. 
Ten children grew to maturity, and all are active 
Christians. Three sons of his parents are Meth- 
odist ministers. One daughter is in the Inter- 
national Young Women's Christian Association 
work. The subject of this sketch had the benefit 
of country schools in boyhood, a few months of 
high school, and a year at the Ohio Northern 
University, Ada, Ohio. After a career of teach- 
ing he entered the Ohio Wesleyan University at 
Delaware, Ohio, but soon suffered an acute at- 
tack of rheumatism and struggled many months 
for life. In a convalescent state he came to 
Washington and entered the Columbia River Con- 
ference in 1893 and after five years of service was 
transferred to the Montana Conference, in which 
body he has served the church to the present time 
as pastor and superintendent, first in Helena, 
afterward the Butte District, then on the Yellow- 
stone District and again on Butte, or the old 
Helena District. He has had a keen interest in 
the educational work of the church in Montana 
and has gained a wide frontier experience. 




"Issachar is a strong ass crouching down between 
two burdens: and he saw that rest was good, and the 
land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to 
bear, and became a servant unto tribute." — Gen. 49. 
14, 15. 

"Be not weary in well-doing." — 2 Thess. 3. 13. 

A fond diversion of many people is to trace 
ancestry and establish remote lineage. The 
patriarch Jacob wisely reversed this practice and 
gathered his sons for a look at the future. He 
constructed a pedigree in advance and gave to his 
children the "Family Tree" full grown. "Jacob 
called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves 
together, that I may tell you that which shall 
befall you in the last days" (Gen. 49. 1). 

The standard under which a people or a person 
sets forth determines largely their ultimate goal 
or destiny. Low ideals do not beget high results, 
nor will noble ideals produce base consequences. 
A common failing point is the lack of building 
future programs, making them large, strong, and 
true, including essential principles ; among others 
a religious purpose is vital. Lack of high-fixed 
purpose often explains defeat. 



What an ensign is to a nation, a coat-of-arms 
to a family, or a trade-mark to a firm, so should 
a good name, unsullied character, and high pur- 
pose be to the individual — his pride, his joy, his 
strength. If individual integrity from genera- 
tion to generation be the undeviating rule, the 
nation's standard will never trail in the dust. 
The family escutcheon will have no blotch. The 
firm name will need no sponsor and the individual 
can dispense with bond companies. The stand- 
ards under which we set forth have everything to 
do with the goal or destiny reached. This is ex- 
actly what Jacob, the father of the tribes, saw. 
A solemn hour it was for this assembly of father 
and sons in a foreign land. As the father is about 
to die *he sees in a prophetic hour the unveiled 
future of his posterity, and, true to the vision, 
reveals his destiny according to the traits in each 

Many a father's heart would grow sick to see 
a few generations ahead. Many also, let us trust, 
would rejoice in the sure reward of righteous- 
ness. In any case, the vision should be very 
sobering to sire and to sons, for all depends upon 
the governing principles of those who are to make 
the future. To be reassuring these principles 
must be more serious than vulgar getting of secu- 
lar wealth, ease-taking, or sensual pleasure. 

All this was clear to Jacob. He saw that 
Issachar shrank from full duty, while strong and 
capable. This same practice is apt to be the sin 


of the strong, and is too much a modern tendency 
in the Northwest with reference to religious 
duties. This dodging or shrinking from duty 
and toil, in a moral or in any other form, to the 
fullness of strength is known in forceful English 
as shirking. 

Jacob may have been moving his tent and 
desert camp. The manner of loading the asses 
requires them to carry together or mutually bear 
the load. One young and strong animal learns 
to crouch, or shrink, and let the burden come 
upon the willing beasts. This is Issachar. This 
is the ease-loving church. This is the undutiful 
Christian. This is the sin of the strong. Very 
homely incidents often convey serious truth. 
Anyone who has worked three horses abreast 
knows how a strong center horse will often learn 
the trick of letting the end of his double tree 
rest against the triple tree and the other two 
horses, less strong possibly than the shirker, will 
do the work. This is the figure of the text. This 
is the sin of the strong. The moral burden of our 
region is not shared or distributed in right or 
equal proportions. Many fail to use their splendid 
strength, and evade moral duties. This practice 
will reduce posterity to tribute payers, to sensu- 
ality and greed. 

We can willingly excuse weakness and have 
charity for the feeble and faint. But shirking 
is inexcusable and intolerable. Issachar is strong 
but quick to see a resting place and cunning to 


enjoy it. A strong tendency to imitate this 
dangerous practice seizes upon many who come 
to our borders from other regions. The land is 
pleasant and, religiously, rest is good. 

The penalty for this sin is exacting and severe. 
With Issachar the feebleness which he feigns 
becomes a reality, and his tribe degenerates to 
servile tribute-payers to surrounding tribes. This 
shirking tribe has left a progeny — originally 
strong and well endowed with capability and 
possible efficiency, but quick to improve a chance 
to rest. Issachar's inheritance was the broad 
west plain of the Jordan, rich, level, and remu- 
nerative; yet he becomes a tribute-payer, lacking 
in self-esteem and shorn of self-respect and in- 
dependence. The warning lesson need not be 

The most destructive evils of this day result 
from love of ease by those whose right and duty 
it was to be strong and bear burdens. This sin 
of the strong has crept into Christian activities 
with menacing results. The tribute this sin will 
exact will be nothing less than our Sabbath, our 
family altar, our deepening life, and our moral 
influence. It is too much to pay to the godless 
tribes requiring it. 

The naturalist tells us that certain tribes of 
ants practice an ancient sin of the human race. 
They make slaves of their fellows and take their 
ease, but lose their own strength and so* degen- 
erate by this practice that when separated from 


their slaves they are incapable of self-support and 
die of starvation. They pay over in dependence 
to the tyranny of sloth. 

I heard a governor of Ohio confess before a 
college class, that as a student he was pampered 
with money and luxuries, while a classmate whom 
he called Charlie was absolutely self-reliant. A 
number of years after quitting college they met. 
Charlie's record was more splendid than that of 
the rich classmate. The governor's uncouth ex- 
pression was: "Confound the luck! Charlie al- 
ways did have the advantage of me. He had to 
struggle, and it gained his self-reliance, while 
ease and luxury rendered me impotent." In re- 
ality the governor's wealth should have been his 
strength, but abuse of strength — this sin of the 
strong — had a penalty as it invariably does. It 
makes of a tribe "a servant unto tribes" as truly 
as it renders impotent the small creatures of the 
ant world. 

Many young people are lounging in ease and 
bordering on dissipation who could be better 
lawyers, better doctors, better teachers, better 
farmers, better merchants, better mechanics, and 
better preachers than any we have to-day. This 
is said with no reflection on the excellent pro- 
fessional and industrial people of to-day. It is 
a reflection on the strong, well-endowed, talented 
persons who flinch at duty and toil. Each gen- 
eration's advantages are superior to those of the 
preceding one, and requirements correspondingly 


greater. None should wince at this fact. All 
should hail it with a glad response. 

The struggle with disadvantages so often men- 
tioned is in reality a struggle with advantages. 
Hardships are the wealth of the poor, while 
affluence often proves to be the poverty of the 
rich, who evade duty and toil, choosing luxury 
and ease instead. A recent tabulation of birth 
rate in New York city is as follows: Jews, fifty- 
five to one thousand annually; Italians, fifty; 
Negroes, twenty-nine; and the rich homes of the 
pure Americans but seven to the one thousand 
annually. Nature, in this instance God, is not 
mocked: extinction is a severe penalty physi- 
cally ; it is alarmingly so spiritually. 

This sin of the strong attacks church people 
and church activities. Many a small, weak band 
outdoes the strong, rich, ease-loving organization. 
There are pleasing exceptions, but many churches 
rich in members and material resources have 
lamentably few conversions. If their efforts were 
in ratio to those of smaller and poorer churches 
mighty results would follow. 

I have witnessed the coming of multitudes into 
the great Northwest. Many of them are the salt 
of the earth and our righteous strength in this 
land. Others crouch between the burdens and 
see that rest is good, but astonishingly soon be- 
come tribute-payers to carnal tribes. Many who 
have enjoyed the strength of godly atmosphere 
as the church and family altar in the homeland 


grow weary in well-doing in the new land, join 
Issachar's tribe, and submit to a tribute the 
church would never exact. 

A man of combative nature tackled a stony 
New England farm, and made it the best in the 
county. When asked if he would not like to farm 
in the free deep soil of the West, his reply was, 
"I'd grow lazy if I put my spade into the ground 
where it did not strike a rock." Woe to them that 
are at ease in Zion! Every man shall bear his 
own burden, or what time he should be a teacher 
of others he will have need that he be taught 
again the first principles. 

Some people never halt, others never let slip 
a chance to sit down. Those who march keep the 
throng moving. Many of us feel ourselves but a 
part of the throng. Some have a habit of pushing 
difficulties aside or mastering them; others hunt 
a way round and become stranded in by-paths. 
The strong who use their strength get above mists 
and clouds of despair. Those who sin against 
their strength suffocate in ease-taking. We tire 
most when doing least. Idlers grow weary. Those 
who keep going keep growing, while lazy people 
complain and fail. Diligence in prayer and in 
God's word is proof against weariness in God's 
work. Nature is action! Tides, winds, clouds, 
streams, all work hard. God assigns great tasks 
to people. To redeem the race is no small thing. 
It is worthy of strength. 

To shrink burdens proves us unworthy of the 


work of the Master. He was no idler. He did 
the work of his Father who sent him. He en- 
joins us to work while it is day. To each one his 
work was his parable in Mark 13. 34. 

Energy thrives in no country as in the North- 
west. It has built our mountain chains and has 
plowed out our canons. Our swift, limpid rivers 
and streams are mighty power lines of energy 
from source to mouth. Our breezes are constant. 
Our almost constant sunshine scintillates with 
life. Day unto day uttereth strength and night 
unto night showeth keenness. Issachar's tribe 
would have been discordant with environment 
here. Industrially, commercially, and educa- 
tionally our people catch the spirit of Montana's 
rivers, mountains, and sky. In these surround- 
ings, with the tendency they gender, why make 
an exception in things spiritual, that is, the 
affairs of Christ's kingdom. Nowhere does nature 
repay toil as in the Northwest. But lavish as 
she is, there are no dividends for those who take 
their ease. All we say of nature, we can say of 
grace. Arise, shine, put on thy strength, O Zion. 
Not slothful in business, but fervent in spirit, 
serving the Lord. 



Superintendent Great Falls District, Great 
Falls, Montana 

John A. Martin was born at Teewater, Ontario, 
Canada, April 29, 1869, of Scotch-Irish parent- 
age. The greater part of his boyhood days were 
spent on the farm. In his seventeenth year he 
was given a license to preach, but owing to ill 
health he had to discontinue for a time. In Oc- 
tober, 1887, he moved to Livingston, Montana, 
and assumed work at the railroad shops. In 1892 
the Rev. Jacob Mills placed him in charge of 
Livingston Circuit, Montana Conference. The 
following year he was appointed to the Bozeman 
Circuit and from there was sent to Glasgow, Mon- 
tana, in the North Montana Mission. After two 
years of service there and one at Fort Benton he 
went to Garrett Biblical Institute, but owing to 
ill health he returned before graduation to Mon- 
tana and was stationed at Hamilton for four 
years; Philipsburg, one year; Chinook, three 
years; Lewistown, two years; First Church, 
Great Falls, five years ; and in 1913 was appointed 
superintendent of the Great Falls District, North 
Montana Conference, in which capacity he is now 
serving the church. 




"Wherefore the Lord God of Israel saith, . . . 
Them that honor me I will honor." — 1 Sam. 2. 30. 

We believe that "Christian Stewardship" is 
one of the greatest questions before us to-day as 
a church of the living God. And, further, we 
do not hesitate to say that the success of God's 
work, great as we know it is, hinges very largely 
upon the fact of our honoring God or our dis- 
honoring him. There is no possible doubt but 
that the church has been brought into derision 
on account of the methods that have been em- 
ployed for the raising of finances in order to carry 
on the work. 

That an organization which has only the wel- 
fare of men at heart should be questioned, as the 
church is to-day, about its usefulness is rather 
humiliating to those who are giving it the 
strength and devotion of their lives. Yet the 
question is being asked, "What is the matter with 
the churches?" Many are the solutions offered, 
but none, so far, of the inventions of man's mind 
has given a satisfactory answer; nor yet will 
they ever be able to do so, for God himself has 



the only solution — that of honoring him. When 
the church honors God, he always honors the 
church. That is a biblical statement and has 
been proven time and time again in the Christian 
experiences of those who have "proved him." 
When a church or an individual feels no respon- 
sibility as to privileges and duties in this great 
work of the salvation of the lost, of a necessity 
something must suffer, because God's plans have 
not been put into operation. 

When we begin to put biblical methods into 
practice you will see a different world; not that 
God will change, but the change will be in us. 
There is no doubt whatsoever that the work of 
God is suffering every day, and I believe very 
largely so, from a lack of knowledge of what God 
has to say to us in his own blessed Book. "Where 
there is no vision, the people perish : but he that 
keepeth the law, happy is he." There lies our 
difficulty; we have failed to grasp the vision as 
given to us in the Word of God. Multitudes of 
folks have been endeavoring to consecrate them- 
selves to the work of God without consecrating 
their possessions. We must bear in mind that the 
church can never come to its fullness of power 
until it accepts and practices a financial system 
that will pour into the Lord's treasury a due pro- 
portion of the resources of his people everywhere ; 
for victory in the local church means victory 
abroad as well, while defeat of the church at home 
means defeat everywhere. 


At the big International Epworth League Con- 
vention held in Buffalo, New York, in July, 1914, 
Dr. Badley, who is the general secretary of the 
Epworth League of India, made the statement 
that there have been thousands of natives turned 
away who came seeking baptism because they 
did not have enough Christian workers to teach 
the natives the true significance of Christian 
baptism. Contrast that statement with this fact : 
in this country there are several thousand Stu- 
dent Volunteers who are willing to go to foreign 
mission fields, but there is not the means at hand 
to send them. There must be something woefully 
wrong with the church when such conditions 
exist, especially when the church has long prayed 
for open doors, and God has heard the earnest 
supplications of his people ; the doors have opened, 
but the purse strings have tightened, the tithe 
has been withheld. It is just as necessary in liv- 
ing a Christian life to have a system in our finan- 
cial obligations to the church as it is to pray, or 
read the Bible. In fact, I doubt the sincerity of 
a life that can say prayers, and read the Scrip- 
tures and then close the ear and heart to the ever- 
pleading Macedonian cry, "Come over and help 

When the church either at home or abroad 
turns away seeking souls from its altars, because 
of lack of funds with which to support native 
workers or pay the running expenses, it is a sad 
commentary on twentieth-century Christianity. 


It would seem unreasonable to think that the 
good God has made provision for everything else 
in the world except a financial plan for the main- 
tenance of his own work. But I want to say to 
you that God has given to us a plan, that of 
"Christian stewardship," with the tithe as his 
standard of giving. The tithe was a part of the 
law and life of God's people under the Old Testa- 
ment dispensation, and there is no place where 
we are told that it has been changed in the New 

The tithe is an Anglo-Saxon word meaning the 
"tenth." It has special reference to our honoring 
God in worship, in the giving of one tenth of our 
income for religious purposes. Giving is a part 
of worship, as well as singing. 

As we prosper, God prospers also, for we are 
coworkers together with him. Paul in his letter 
to the church at Corinth gives them this idea, 
"Upon the first day of the week let every one of 
you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered 
him, that there be no gatherings when I come." 
You will notice that there were no exceptions — 
"every one of you." Then there must have been 
some standard to gauge their giving. Paul knew 
of the tithing system, because no one was better 
versed in the law than he. From all classes of 
folks comes the question, "How can I tithe ?" The 
farmer asks the question. Personally I know 
farmers who keep books, and they can tell you 
what it costs to raise a crop of grain, from the time 


the first furrow is turned in the soil until the grain 
is in the elevator and they have the check in their 
pocket. After the expenses are all paid he can 
give you his net profit, and from this, if he fol- 
lows the law of God, he will give one tenth. If 
there is no profit to him, why, God loses as well 
as does the farmer. The professional man can 
tell you what his income and what his expendi- 
tures have been; such persons tithe after deduct- 
ing the expense of the business. The merchant 
can tell you what his income is for the year, after 
all expenses for conducting the business have 
been deducted. The salaried man has no business 
expenses to deduct, so from his salary each month 
the first item taken out is the "tithe." If the 
salary be one hundred dollars per month, then the 
sum of ten dollars is put into the "Lord's Box." 
We have heard of people who are supporting poor 
relatives from this fund, and no part of it ever 
goes into the church treasury. Read Malachi 
3. 7-12. 

History tells us that at least thirteen centuries 
before Christ tithing was practiced among the 
Greeks. Clement of Alexandria tells us that be- 
fore the invention of making images, the tithe 
was offered. Demosthenes calls it sacrilege to 
retain the tenth and use it for other purposes save 
that of the deities. The fact is that this custom 
was practiced among all people known to history 
thirteen hundred years before the Christian era. 
The Babylonians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and 


Romans, all dedicated a tenth of their income 
and spoils to their gods, as well as did the people 
of Israel, from their settlement in Canaan to the 
end of the period covered by Old Testament Scrip- 
tures. Jesus comes to us in the New Testament.' 
What does he teach? He says, "Whosoever will 
do, and teach the law shall be called great in the 
kingdom of heaven." You will recall how a cer- 
tain lawyer tempted Jesus by asking, "Master, 
what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" Jesus 
answers, "What is written in the law ?" The man 
knew what was written, but he refused to comply, 
just as multitudes of folks continue to do. There 
can be no doubt but that the law of the tithe still 
holds good, and where it is ignored the blessings 
of God cannot be fully realized. There is a no- 
table thing in connection with God's divine plan 
in that it records no failures on the part of the 
churches or individuals where it has been con- 
scientiously practiced. Let me give you just 
one concrete illustration that has come under my 
own ministry. I quote from a paper prepared 
on tithing for a District Conference in 1914: 

"To me and mine tithing is no longer an experi- 
ment. To our absolute satisfaction we have 
witnessed the result of taking God at his word. 
For a time, out here in a Montana town, I was 
out of work and that through no fault of my 
own. It was then that I heard a sermon on tith- 
ing. To this day I believe it was the logic of the 
sermon rather than my own extremity that made 


me say, not, 'Lord, if you will send me a job/ but, 
'Lord, I know you are going to send me a job, and 
then we will begin tithing.' My wife had favored 
the idea before I had reached the point myself. 
Was it by chance that in a week's time I received 
a letter asking me to report for work where I had 
not thought of asking for it ? I took the position. 
The salary was small — just enough to live on — 
but we carefully set aside the tithe and the rest 
met our needs. Was it by chance that soon after 
I received another letter which resulted in a 
different position with an increase of thirty-three 
per cent in salary? We kept on tithing. Was it 
by chance that a few months afterward, the 
pastor at Whitefish, Montana, who had been my 
pastor back in Iowa, started a movement which 
resulted in my present position in Whitefish, 
where every day is a delight because of its op- 
portunity for Christian service, yet where every 
condition seems to help us toward greater pros- 
perity? Things don't come by chance. We have 
only met the conditions, and he whose word has 
never failed has done the rest. 'There hath not 
failed one word of all his good promises.' Matters 
have passed the experimental stage with us, for 
we have been at both ends of this question and 
have seen God's promises work out. The tithe is 
larger now, though of course it is easier to pay it 
than when wages were smaller, and if it pleases 
God to increase still further our prosperity, we 
shall not stop with a tenth, but will increase the 


percentage." In passing let me say this: where 
a person begins tithing and gives it a fair trial, 
it is very seldom that you ever hear of his giving 
it up unless he loses his Christian experience. I 
know of only one such case, and that was the 

Draw on your imagination and picture in your 
mind the disciples of old doing as some of our 
modern churches are doing. Think of Paul and 
Peter running raffles in their churches, or Mary 
and Martha holding a rummage sale of old cast- 
off clothing, and going around the community 
gathering up eatables for church suppers, and 
charging thirty-five cents for a seventy-five-cent 
meal, and leading many people to believe that 
they are helping the church by paying half what 
a thing is worth. 

Listen to Paul: "Then the twelve called the 
multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, 
It is not reason that we should leave the word of 
God, and serve tables" (Acts 6. 2). I am sure 
that you could not picture in your mind David 
tuning up his harp and John the beloved disciple 
of our Lord running a modern dance to pay tem- 
ple expenses. There has just been brought to my 
notice a certain church whose minister does not 
believe in tithing. His church was hard struck 
by certain public works closing down, his salary 
was back six hundred dollars, and the grocery- 
man was urging that his bills be paid. The min- 
ister called his church officers together and they 


decided on a big dance. Do you wonder that that 
church had to dispense with their paid organist 
and choir leader, and are now wondering how 
they are going to pay the janitor. The minister 
has resigned, and has sought other and greener 
fields. With all the faults of the church of the 
past, thank God, they never resorted to some of 
the humiliating and questionable methods of 
these days, such as selling the shadows of women 
and girls to the highest bidder, and conducting 
dances to keep the temples of God open even for 
one day a week. The accusation is made, and in 
many cases justly, that the churches are always 
begging. The reason for this is that the church 
is not honoring God by the tithe and systematic 
giving. It is for us to give it its rightful place 
and thus lift the church above the selfishness and 
covetousness that now holds it to the mammon 
of this world. 

A few years ago when serving a church of 
three hundred and fifty members, and knowing 
them very well as to their income, I averaged 
seventy-five of them as receiving one hundred 
dollars per month, and forty of them as receiving 
fifty dollars per month ; leaving two hundred and 
thirty-five to give nothing, it would still make a 
total tithe of eleven thousand four hundred dol- 
lars a year. Twenty-five per cent to the benevo- 
lences of the church would be two thousand eight 
hundred and fifty dollars. Twenty-five per cent 
to the running expenses of the church would be 


two thousand eight hundred and fifty dollars, leav- 
ing a balance of five thousand seven hundred dol- 
lars for building, repairing, and charity purposes. 
What an influence for good such a church would 
be in a community if all paid the tithe! 

To-day when an individual or a family meets 
with adversity in a community, the first thing is 
the humiliating experience of taking up a sub- 
scription for them. How much better it would 
be for the church to have funds on hand, gov- 
erned by a board of directors as a bank is, able to 
minister to suffering bodies as well as to suffer- 
ing souls! We cannot see why this work should 
be left to lodges and boards of charity. The 
Church of God ought to be able to minister to 
both body and soul ; and if the tithes were paid, 
the church would stand foremost in every com- 

Then there is another thing that must be con- 
sidered — the time that is taken in the average 
pulpit for special collections and subscriptions. 
Under the tithe system every worthy object would 
receive just consideration and publicity, but no 
extra collections would need to be taken or sub- 
scriptions asked for. The pastor's mind would 
be relieved of all anxiety as to finances, and he 
would be left free to devote all of his time to the 
spiritual interests of the church and community. 
Under the present system it appears on the sur- 
face at least that most pastors lose more sleep 
worrying over finances than they do over lost 


souls. For they feel that they must bring up a 
good financial report to the Annual Conference in 
order to hold their standing and advance if pos- 

Brethren, we ought at least to conduct the 
churches on a scriptural basis. Do you wonder 
that so many folks look upon the church in de- 
rision? Do you wonder why it is so hard to in- 
terest many folks in the church? I don't wonder 
at all ; in fact, I wonder that the church is doing 
as well as it is, when you consider the question- 
able methods that are employed to raise finances, 
keeping the man who is to deliver the message of 
God from behind the sacred desk. O brethren, 
let us in the name of God come back to the Bible 
and follow the method that God gave to his people 
in the beginning, and thus raise the standard of 
the church to where it belongs, and thus honor 
God with the tithe. And when the great day of 
God shall come with Paul we can shout out 
triumphantly, "I was not disobedient unto the 
heavenly vision." 






Editor, Pacific Christian Advocate, Portland, 


Our problems are many, but to discuss them in 
a compass of several hundred words is unthink- 
able; therefore, I will name only three, which, to 
my mind, are paramount, and should have the 
closest attention of Christianity. 

First. The Immigrant Problem. We have 
heretofore had very little to do with the newly 
arrived foreigner. He has generally landed in 
New York, and a very large percentage has stayed 
east of the Mississippi. Only the more desirable, 
the thrifty, adventuresome have ventured across 
the plains. Now, with the opening of the Panama 
Canal he will be brought to our very door. How 
are we prepared to deal with him ? If we neglect 
him, he will become a menace and a burden upon 
society; if we Christianize him and direct his 
energies, he will be an asset and a colaborer. This 
is the task of Protestantism, yea, of Christianity. 

Second. Enforcement of the Prohibition Laws. 
Kansas had a prohibition law for a quarter of a 
century before it was effective. Unless we can 
do much better, the cause of temperance will be 



retarded many years. It was a great moral vic- 
tory to have two adjoining States vote overwhelm- 
ingly dry. Idaho will join by act of Legislature. 
Oregon and Washington are seaport States and 
law enforcement will be more difficult than in 
Kansas, and to make the law ineffective will be 
proportionately unadvantageous. Here again is 
a task for Protestantism. Are we equal to it? 

Third. Our Inherited Gains. It is safe to say 
that hundreds of active workers in the Methodist 
Church of the East and Middle West are lost to 
our denomination and to the Christian Church 
by our lax methods of transfer. This seems like 
an insignificant thing to many pastors; other 
pastors are very reticent about releasing a family 
after they once become members of his church, 
and these delays are disastrous. The letter of 
transfer should, if possible, precede its owner to 
the field, and the receiving pastor exert himself 
to make these people welcome. 


State Normal School, Ellensburg, Washington 

The Pacific Northwest is an empire within it- 
self. It has sprung full grown out of the yester- 
days. It has come to complete recognition among 
the States by leaps and bounds. What the East- 
ern States required for a hundred years to com- 
plete has been done here in a brief quarter of a 

The people that builded this empire were com- 
pelled to push ahead or be pushed aside. They 
accepted the challenge and began crowding those 
in front with the same energy that they were be- 
ing crowded by those behind. They knew no 
limit and recognized no master. Science was 
their handmaiden, and to succeed was the goal 
of their ambition. 

This condition forced them to leave the Golden 
Rule beyond the Rockies, and they proceeded to 
do others before others could do them. In the 
East they were faithful church members; now 
they are not even church tenders. The ascent of 
the Great Divide seemed too steep for church let- 
ters. The air of the Northwest seemed too rare 
for prayer. 



The game was rapid and fascinating. We 
hurried forth to conquer the wilderness, but we 
have been conquered by it. We are charmed by 
the hills, but fail to read the divine charm in 
their origin. We see the great mountains and 
admire their beauty and grandeur, but never turn 
to the mount from which One said, "All power is 
given unto me in heaven and in earth." We have 
been turning intellectual handsprings in our mad 
search for the secrets of nature, but we have not 
searched the Scripture for the secret of a useful 

If such is the condition, where shall we look 
for the remedy? The statement of the problem 
is easier than the solution. Possibly we should 
first turn to the church to see if it is making the 
progress in harmony with the spirit of the West. 
Perhaps the pulpit could assist in the solution 
by a stronger and more modern presentation of 
the truth. Perchance the pew, indifferent to the 
call of a righteous life, has been drifting danger- 
ously near to the rocks of materialism. From 
whatever source we may expect to find the solu- 
tion, we may do well to think on these things. 


President, Laymen's Association, Columbia 

River Conference. State Industrial 

Insurance Commissioner, Olympia, 


The great problem, to my mind, in the Pacific 
Northwest is lack of religious life. Many causes 
contribute to this. The newness of the country, 
its people coming here from all parts of the 
world, strangers to each other, without the family 
and home connections; the population is cosmo- 
politan, with nearly every nationality repre- 
sented, with a large proportion of Southern Euro- 
peans and Orientals, who have no religious life 
nor Sunday observance. 

The church is not meeting the needs of the peo- 
ple. The solution is an awakening of the ministers 
and laity to our needs, and by consecrated, per- 
sistent effort reach out and bring the people to a 
realization of their religious condition. The 
simple gospel of Christ preached and lived by 
ministers and people, particularly church mem- 
bers, with the militant spirit carrying this gospel 
to all, will solve the problems and it cannot be 
solved otherwise. Also discourage the "isms" and 
"religious fads," and keep well grounded in the 
fundamental Christian principles. 



State Normal School, Cheney, Washington 

The citizenship of the Pacific Northwest 
made up of a cosmopolitan people, coming fro] 
almost every quarter of the United States. Thes 
people are fraught with the strong virile spir 
which is only found in the pioneer type. The ei 
vironment of the country is such that it ene: 
gizes the inhabitants to a great degree, and, a 
in all, we find them to be a people moved onl 
by the strongest influences. Nevertheless, the 
are a people of great heart and this living, throl 
bing, forceful spirit needs only to be well o: 
ganized and properly directed in order for it t 
become a mighty force for good. The problei 
of the church, therefore, is to secure the stronger 
types of manhood and womanhood for its leader 
and to hold out to the world the strongest proc 
of its real virtue. The goodness of God shoul 
be preached rather than the awfulness that ma 
possibly come through disobedience. Love, righ 
justice, and truth should be the pillars on whic 
our doctrines must rest, and these principle 
must be carried into the business world durin 
the six days of the week as well as taken to th 



sacred shrine on the Sabbath day. We must have 
more of the Christ spirit and less of denomina- 
tionalism. We must have less churches in "name" 
and more in "purpose." We ought to have stronger 
cooperation between the denominations working 
in a single community. We really need to mini- 
mize the number of churches in our smaller 
neighborhoods in order to make possible the sup- 
port for carrying on the work in a creditable 
manner. Christian spirit must be secured first, 
and church spirit will take care of itself. 

Since it is evident that only a small portion of 
our people really attend church, we must there- 
fore find some other way of reaching them than 
through the Sunday service. Christ called them 
wherever he found them and at once began his 
lessons of truth and love. The apostles followed 
this same plan, though it seems to be obsolete dur- 
ing our modern times. If the world is to be won 
for Christ, it must be done to a great extent out- 
side of church walls and at other times than 
during the regular services. Our problem is to 
find the way, to discover the point of contact, to 
make our lives a symbol of service for the accom- 
plishment of the best things. Petty difficulties 
must be ignored, minor differences must be pushed 
aside, the bigger and the more vital things must 
become dominant in this great work. Brotherly 
kindness must take the place of unworthy bicker- 
ings, and the great love which Christ holds for 
mankind must be declared through his servants. 


Member op 1912 General Conference, Seattle, 


The problems of the Pacific Northwest can be 
much more easily stated than solved. I presume 
they do not differ materially from the church 
problems of any other section of the country, yet 
there are some conditions connected with life in 
this section not met with elsewhere. One of 
these, the increasing population, makes it neces- 
sary for church authorities to be somewhat more 
active in reaching the newcomers than might be 
required in other sections. Then, too, many of 
these newcomers have either become so cold or 
so cloyed in their old church home that they fre- 
quently do not identify themselves with the 
church in their newly chosen home. This means 
work for both pastor and people. 

Sabbath desecration is one of the problems of 
any comparatively new section of the country, 
and we have it here as in other such sections. 
Commercialism in all its various forms presents 
one of the barriers to the onward march of the 
church. Briefly stated, these are some of the 
tasks confronting the church in this section. 
How shall they be overcome? One possible solu- 



tion is the presentation of the gospel as a living 
reality, stripped of the mysticism that has too 
frequently characterized much of the preaching 
of this land. If the religion of Jesus Christ is 
to be of any help to mankind, it must be livable 
reality, and unless preachers preach this and 
church members live such a religion, none of 
these problems will be solved. There is much of 
tenderness and sentiment in the service of our 
Master, but the preaching of his truth must not be 
on the basis of emotionalism or sentimentalism, 
but, rather, the stern manliness and integrity so 
necessary in discharging the civic and business 
duties of this life. 


Superintendent of the Largest Sunday Schooi 

in Columbia River Conference — North 

Yakima, Washington 

The very vastness of the resources of the North 
west, the preponderance of mountains, rivers, anc 
forests tend to increase the problems. Nowher< 
in the United States in a like area are fount 
such a variety of industry and natural resources 
of every conceivable type. This fact brings mei 
of every kind and social condition — men tired o 
the humdrum existence in settled countries, th< 
young man full of life and ambition to better his 
fortunes, and the idle see new fields well adaptec 
to their needs. 

The ever-present problem of the unemployec 
will be tested to the limit because of better op 
portunities, of untold thousands of foreigner! 
coming to our country who must find their place 
socially, commercially, and religiously, among us 
To assimilate and Christianize our present anc 
ever-increasing population and maintain th< 
purity of our American ideals is a task that wil 
require great wisdom and consecration. 

The great freedom of the West, with its husth 



and bustle — work in a hurry, live in a hurry — 
has a great tendency to make us forget our former 
religious connections and causes us to drift with 
the tide. 

No time like the present has ever given such 
great opportunity for trying out the teachings of 
Jesus Christ as to their practical value in the 
daily affairs of men and women amid times that 
are turbulent and trying and under conditions 
which demand the very best of everyone, while 
the inducements for less than the best are con- 
stantly seeking to lure one from the attainment 
of his ideal. 

Let me suggest that if this great Pacific North- 
west is ever captured for Christ, it will be be- 
cause the Sunday school and young people's so- 
cieties are equipping and training an army of 
boys and girls to battle for him, with weapons 
that never fail — "The open Bible and the uplifted 
Cross." Allow me to further suggest that there 
should be less of creeds and nonessentials and 
more leaders with newer and better conception 
and real vision of the mission of Jesus Christ 
among men. 


President, Trustees Board, Willamette 
University, Portland, Washington 

One problem of Methodism is that of really 
vitalizing our membership with a definite per- 
sonal experience, so that each member will be 
able to testify, as Paul did, that it is not he that 
liveth, but Christ that liveth in him, and that 
every manifestation of his life henceforth shall 
be regarded as a revelation of the Master to the 

Such an experience would lead promptly to 
the reestablishment of the family altar in the 
great multitude of homes where it has long been 
neglected. If the family altar can be kindled 
anew with personal devotion, sacrifice, and a 
divine enthusiasm for the deepest and highest ex- 
periences in the spiritual life, it shall speedily 
come to pass that the flame upon the altar in the 
sanctuary will have a fervency and illuminating 
and the attractive power that will begin to draw 
unto it the multitudes of young people who have 
not the benefit or blessing of religious training 
in their homes, and this in its turn will act in 
ways of surprising helpfulness upon the many 
other perplexing problems which now confront us 
from day to day. 



Northwestern Business College, Spokane, 


It is not a difficult task to enumerate some of 
the religious problems confronting every com- 
munity, but how to solve them is quite another 
thing. I should like to mention some of the most 
noticeable of the religious problems as they ap- 
pear to me. 

1. Sabbath desecration, such as Sunday base- 
ball, theaters, moving-picture houses open all 
Sabbath day and evening. These things take the 
minds of the people, especially the young, from 
the houses of worship. The young people are the 
hope of the nation, the hope of the church, and 
if they are not brought up to love and respect 
the house of God, there is little hope for the 
onward march of the church and her influences. 
Too often parents are people of society and have 
no regard for church and religion, in which case 
the children care nothing about the Sabbath or 
the Christian religion. 

2. Another stumbling-block to a great many is 
the multiplicity of churches and creeds. I may 
be wrong, but I sometimes think that the churches 
are trying too much of the spectacular; in other 



words, they are running in opposition to the pic- 
ture shows. Sensationalism is not religion any 
more than loud shouting is preaching. What the 
people want is a preacher just a little different 
from the average man; a church different from 
a vaudeville or moving-picture show; a religion 
that will reach down to the inner recesses of a 
man's heart and lift him up to God; a religion 
that will make him better and not prouder; a re- 
ligion that sees a man's heart and not his clothes. 
A gospel that Christ preached and not the kind 
that excuses the rich man and condemns the poor ; 
a religion that looks upon all men as brothers and 
does not first consult a man's financial or social 
standing before passing judgment. Social caste 
should in my opinion have no special place in 
church society. 

The ideal church, if there be such, is the one 
where all of its members are on the job, a church 
that not only expects its preacher to have a little 
religion, but a church that expects and has in 
the pews and on the official board men and women 
who are also Christians, not only in name but in 
practice — men and women who put religion into 
business. Cut out some of the machinery of our 
churches and add a little more plain common- 
sense Christianity. Do not make the poor feel 
that they are not welcome just because they can- 
not pay quite as much to the overhead expenses. 
They may get to heaven, even though they do not 
contribute as liberally as others. 


Twice Member of General Conferences. Now 

Superintendent of Seattle District, 

Seattle, Washington 

One of the problems confronting the church in 
the Northwest is counter attractions — the theater, 
moving-picture show, the poolroom and other 
forms of worldly amusement. Solution : 

First. By making the church intensely spirit- 
ual. I use the word "intensely" advisedly and 
after serious thought on this subject. The at- 
tempt to meet the world half way, or lower our 
standards with the object of drawing people to 
Christ and the church, has always failed and will 
always fail. The average worldly man or woman 
is, after all, looking to the church for leadership 
in spiritual things, and they have no use for 
shams or half-heartedness in the religious life. 
They are looking for the genuine article. The 
higher the standard and the more intense the 
spiritual life of the church the more likely it is 
to overcome counter attractions. 

Second. By making the church the center of 
the social life of the people. I do not mean by 
this that we are to make a playhouse of the 



church building but we can cultivate the musical 
and literary tastes of the people. An orchestra, 
a musical club, a debating society, a free lecture 
course or lyceum bureau can be organized and 
conducted in the church. These things with a 
wholesome social atmosphere will create a desire 
for the best things of life and draw folks to the 
church of God. 


Member General Conferences of 1908 and 
1912; Moscow, Idaho 

How shall we win the masses of the Pacific 
Northwest for Christ? The greatest problem be- 
fore Methodism of the great Northwest is the one 
above suggested. The magnitude of the problem 
is seen by two facts : 

First. We have room for the masses. It is 
stated on good authority that if we divide the 
United States into two equal parts by running a 
line from north to south, the Eastern half con- 
tains at the present time ninety per cent of the 
population, or, ninety million people, while the 
Western half has but ten per cent, or ten million. 
The Western half is capable of supporting more 
people than is the Eastern. This means that ulti- 
mately we shall have in this section nine or ten 
times as many people as now. 

Second. The masses are headed this way. 
From the East they are crossing this line west- 
ward, and from Canada they are returning here. 
From the war-stricken nations of half the world 
they are at this time looking to this land as the 
one haven of peace, security, and prosperity. 



Millions of people in the war zone, it is reported, 
have already decided to come to the United States 
as soon as the war is over. How shall we solve 
the problem? Space prevents a detailed plan be- 
ing given here, but it means at least, (1) more 
missionary money for this field, (2) more pastors 
and missionaries, (3) more evangelistic fervor 
and zeal, (4) more lay evangelism, (5) more at- 
tention to rural communities where a large per- 
centage of the immigrants will find homes. 


Superintendent Bbllingham District, Belling- 
ham, Washington 

Among our problems are: 

1. Warped thinking, where such surface gods 
as gold and healing and future fire-extinction are 
dazzling the vision of some clever and many 
stupid people. 

2. Infidelity among the struggling masses that 
robs them of the trust that insures a supply of 
daily food for all about the table and leaves 
gnawing hunger and biting despair clutching at 
the heart. 

3. A worldliness among church members that is 
rendering many insensible to the highest mission 
of life. Supine unconcern has drawn holy fires 
and chilled the necessary passion for souls. 
Plain old-fashion apathy has benumbed many 
newfangled Christians. 

The sufficiency of God in all their affairs is 
overlooked by all such classes. While he is able 
they lack spiritual vision to see him awaiting 
their call. It is the mission of the church to so 
disclose the Almighty One that they will accept 
their burden-bearing Saviour. 



An efficiency movement is suggested to study 
our religious conditions in order to eliminate 
the waste and utilize all our energies. We need 
a scientific survey of the wild pastures that are 
attracting so many silly sheep. Why are the 
men of our mines and mills and lumber camps so 
reckless of their highest interests? Why do not 
our youth, "go forth to nature's teachings" and 
inquire of the Great Teacher and not the 
"movies" ? 

Accurate measure of nearby gospel forces 
should supplement this survey. Adequate lay 
and clerical forces are close at hand that can 
solve the problems in the radiance of the cross. 
Vision and enduement never come short of the 
upper room. The old-time Pentecost can reap- 
pear in modern houses. It is returning with 
power. The servants did all the work at Cana, 
but it was Jesus who gave them success. So 
shall we solve our problems; when we do all the 
work and let him have his way with us. Efficient 
Christians are the complement of the sufficient 
God. Each may have his mind, enjoy ample daily 
bread, and be drawn into the kingdom of peace 
and plenty. 


Superintendent, Portland District, Portland, 


Knowing but little of the other States in the 
Pacific Northwest, I will confine what I have to 
say to the State of Oregon. Oregon is yet in its 
infancy. When admitted into the Union in 1859 
she had a population of fifty-three thousand and 
an area of sixty-one million four hundred and 
fifty-nine thousand two hundred acres. The pres- 
ent population is seven hundred and fifty thou- 
sand, and fully thirty-five per cent is in the city of 
Portland, which will give an idea of the amount 
of territory unoccupied. The population of the 
State is cosmopolitan in its make-up. In short, 
we have the city problem and also the country 
problem ; the problem of wealth and poverty ; the 
strong influential church is here and the very 
poor as well. The great problem that we have to 
solve, after all, is the problem of sin; that is at 
the root of all our woes and the one great prob- 
lem that we have to solve either in city or coun- 
try, and the salvation by Jesus is the only solu- 
tion. What is needed most, however, is leader- 
ship adapted to the real needs of Western life. 



There is a great lack of vision. "Where there is 
no vision the people perish." Lack of vision of 
responsibility means inefficient leadership. The 
heroic in many instances is taken ont of our re- 
ligious life and service, so that not many are 
willing to make the sacrifice needful to the ac- 
complishment of the work that should be done. 
Give us men intellectually and spiritually strong, 
who can see their opportunities and are willing 
to give themselves to a hard task, for it is the 
hard and difficult things that try us and make us. 
Next to men the greatest need is money. Could 
the church at large get a vision of the opportuni- 
ties in this Western country, and the great needs 
both in the congested centers and in the sparsely 
settled districts, I am sure they would respond 
with great liberality. Men of the right sort, with 
sufficient money back of them, would make even 
"the desert to blossom as a rose." One great diffi- 
culty we have to contend with is the mad rush 
for gold on the part of many church members who 
come to us from the East and who leave their 
membership behind, and so, instead of lining up 
with the forces of God, become a source of weak-